Exam 3

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  1. What makes an animal cell different?
    Eukeryotic, cells lack cell walls, multicellular, collagen, extra cellular matrix and unique cell junction.
  2. Molecular level to animal cells.
    HOX genes and rRNA genes.
  3. Some unique things about animal anatomy.
    Bilateral symmetry and radial symmetry, motility of cells and appendages, or entire body. some have non-motile stages. sexual reproduction dominates.
  4. Animals showed up about how long ago?
    600 mya
  5. Animal kingdom is Metazoa and can be split into two catagories.
    Parazoa or Eumetazoa
  6. THis group of metazoa has specialized cells and lack true tissue. Sea sponge or jelly
    Parazoa
  7. This group of metazoa has two or more distinct tissue types. embryo develops through gastrulation.
    Eumetazoa
  8. Gastrulation means?
    Beginnings of a gut
  9. Eumetazoa then splits based on symmetry
    Radiatia (rounded starfish) Bilateria (you and me)
  10. Bilateria all have three tissue layers. This is called.
    Triploblastic: Ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm.
  11. Triplobasts hae three body cavity types:
    Acoelomate, pseudocoelomate, and coelomate.
  12. Porifera (the Sponges). 8k species, mostly marine. Asymmetry or simple radial symmetry. No true tisssues. Should look at the pictures of the sponges. Spicule types: Calcium carbonate, silica, spongin, or sticky.
    Invertabrates Parazoa
  13. Radiata have two Phylas.
    Cnidaria and ctenphoa
  14. Developed mouth opening.
    Protostomes
  15. Annelida have some characterists.
    Setae=chitinous bristles; parapodia. have closed cirulatory system with five pumps. respiratory pigment hemoglobin
  16. Annelida: Class Polychaeta
    Mostly seas worms
  17. Annelida Class Clitellata
    Oligochaeta earthworms and Hirudinea leaches ectoparasites
  18. All members produce a cuticle. This is non-living and must be shed to allow growth. This is called molting. Contains Nematoda and Arthropoda
    Phylum Ecdysozoa
  19. What is a cuticle?
    Made of collagen, muscle attachment and water impermeability. Beginings of exoskeleton.
  20. Longitudinal muscles only. AKA threadworms. Hugely diverse. Fresh water, marine, soil, parasitic
    Pseudocoelom
  21. THis contains the hookworms, pinworms, and wuchereria
    Ascaris
  22. Model organism for studying developmental biology. So much so everything is known about it. GENE exe
    Caenorhabditis elegans
  23. This is the most successful eukaryotic phylum, in diversity and in population numbers.
    Arthropoda Fossils trilobites abundant 250-500 mya
  24. Subphylum meaning biting mouth parts
    Chelicerata
  25. Subphylum Chelicerata Class Arachnida
    Spiders
  26. subphylum chelicerata class Merostomata
    Horseshoe crabs
  27. subphylum chelicerata class pycnogonida
    seas spiders
  28. This subpylum of Arthopoda contains class diplopoda and crustacea
    Myriapoda
  29. This is a subphylum of arthopoda; insects. !mill species known. Study is called entomology. Exoskeleton of chitin can be hard as armor or very flexible. Body segments may fuse into tagmata (functional units). compound eyes (ommatidia), in addition to ocelli. Respiratory system: Gills (aquatic) tracheal tubes with spiracles (terrestrial).
    Hexapoda
  30. Defining trait#1 Notochord. Flexible rod between the digestive tract and the dorsal nerve cord. Defining trait #2 Dorsal hollow nerve cord. All other animals phylum have solid ventral nerve cord. Notochord and nerve cord in vertebrates is encased in spinal skeleton. Pharyngeal slits and post anal tail.
    Chordata
  31. THree subphylas of Chordata:
    Cephalocordata and Urochordata and craniata
  32. What subphylum does Lancelets fall into?
    Cephalocordata
  33. What subphylum do Tunicates falls into?
    Urochordata
  34. Hugely diverse category in size and shape. All protect their brain with a bony or cartilaginous skull( cranium). Hagfish is an example. vertebrates: Vertebral column. Bony or cartilaginous. Protects the nerve. Bone or cartilage more flexible than chitin. Living tissue, allows continuous growth. Diversity and complexity of internal organs.
    Craniata
  35. Craniatas that are jawless and finless
    Agnathostomes
  36. Craniatas that have jaws and finned
    Gnathostomes
  37. Where did jaws arise from?
    Phartngeal arches
  38. This class of Gnathostomes has Teeth. Derive from skin scales w/ dentin and enamel. Fins, flaps for stability etc. Lateral line: nerve system attached to the nerve cord. A tube on the side of the fish. Buoyancy assisted by large oil-filled liver and by constant swimming. Skate, Rays, and a few sharks bask, maintain respiration using muscular pharynx and jaw muscles to pump water across gills. Oviparous = egg laying. Eggs retained inside female until hatching.
    Chondrichthyes
  39. Superclass of Chondrthyes Actinopterygii, Actinistia, and Dipnoi Bony skeleton. Smooth skin, and mucus glands.
    Osteroichthyes
  40. This covers the gills and is used to create water current across gills.
    Operculum
  41. Air-filled cas for bouyancy and gas exchange
    Swim bladder
  42. Gnathostome class that is Ray-finned fish. (Think of Nemos little arm) The usual fin that we see.
    Actinoptrygii
  43. Gnathostome class that is Lobe-finned fish. Fleshier, kinda like a shark skin. Bone and arm like. Can be folded in. They can use them to drag themselves
    Actinista
  44. Gnathostome class that has Lope Fin. Air bladders used as a respiratory system. Lungfish. Possible link to tetrapods and life on land.
    Dipnoi
  45. Gnathostome class that covers salamanders, frogs and toads
    Amphibia
  46. What class and order are salamanders from?
    Amphibia Caudata
  47. What class and order are frogs from?
    Amphibia Anura
  48. What class and order are toads from?
    Amphibia Anura
  49. The first repiles was about how long ago?
    350 mya
  50. What makes amphibians different from reptiles?
    Buccal breathing amd thin moist skin. Fish-like eggs and larva have gills.
  51. What makes Reptiles different from amphibians?
    Thoracic breathing. Thickended scaled skin. Water-conserving kidney. Amniotic egg
  52. Who fall into the phylum cordata class reptillia?
    Turtles, lizards, snakes, and crocodiles
  53. What makes lizards differnt from snakes?
    Ear canals w/external openings. and moveable eyelids
  54. teeth in sockets and similar or mammals and early birds. Four-chambered heart, like mammals and birds. Provide post-egg-laying parental care.
    Crocodila
  55. Dinosaurs showed up how long ago?
    215-65mya
  56. Dinos where what kind of body metabolism?
    Endothermic
  57. Keeps optimal temp for metabolic enzymes (endothermic)
    Warm blooded Homeotherms
  58. Uses multiple metabolic enzyme systems to stay active at varying temperatures. (ectothermic)
    Cold blooded Poikiltherm
  59. What was the promary purpose for feathers?
    Insulation
  60. For birds what is the difference between Alticial or precocial births?
    A: naked and needs to be fed. P: down feathers and follow mother around
  61. Who are the ancestors of mammals?
    Reptiles
  62. Nerve cord and pharngeal slits, taiil
    Chordate
  63. Spine bone or cartilage
    Vertebrate
  64. Begining of skull
    Craniate
  65. Has jaw
    Gnathostomes
  66. Four limbs
    Tetrapods
  67. Eggs on land live birth
    Amniotic
  68. teeth in sockets and similar or mammals and early birds. Four-chambered heart, like mammals and birds. Provide post-egg-laying parental care.
    Mammalian
  69. mammals showed up how long ago?
    225 mya
  70. Some things that make mammals unique
    Jaw one bone , Inner ear, two knobs at the base of skull
  71. extinct respites & modern mammals. Lighter skulls and better attachments for jaw muscles.
    Synapsids line
  72. extinct replies and modern mammals. Secondary bony palate: better attachment for chewing muscles and ability to eat & breath simultaneously.
    Therapsids line
  73. What are some dental things that makes mammals mammals?
    Canines, incisors, premolars, and molars.
  74. Specialised teeth is called?
    Heterodont
  75. All the teeth are the same?
    Homodont
  76. What is the biggest trait of mammals?
    Mammary glands
  77. Milk contains?
    Fat, sugar, protein, vitamins, antibodies, water, and minerals
  78. How do some mammals digest more efficiently?
    Symbiotic bactieria, extra stomach chambers, and extended intestines.
  79. Mammals are also know as?
    Theria
  80. This group is the only living group of monotremes: epp-laying mammals.
    Protheria
  81. Protheria eggs are?
    Leathery called cloaca
  82. This group is for placental mammals
    Theria
  83. This group is for marsupials
    Metatheria
  84. Embryo is nourished briefly in uterus -> proto-placenta. Fetus is born premature and must crawl to pouch house that shelters nipples. Separation of fecal and urinary/reproductive. Limbs move toward upright posture.
    Marsupial
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Exam 3
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Exam quiz 3
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