Exam 3

  1. What makes an animal cell different?
    Eukeryotic, cells lack cell walls, multicellular, collagen, extra cellular matrix and unique cell junction.
  2. Molecular level to animal cells.
    HOX genes and rRNA genes.
  3. Some unique things about animal anatomy.
    Bilateral symmetry and radial symmetry, motility of cells and appendages, or entire body. some have non-motile stages. sexual reproduction dominates.
  4. Animals showed up about how long ago?
    600 mya
  5. Animal kingdom is Metazoa and can be split into two catagories.
    Parazoa or Eumetazoa
  6. THis group of metazoa has specialized cells and lack true tissue. Sea sponge or jelly
  7. This group of metazoa has two or more distinct tissue types. embryo develops through gastrulation.
  8. Gastrulation means?
    Beginnings of a gut
  9. Eumetazoa then splits based on symmetry
    Radiatia (rounded starfish) Bilateria (you and me)
  10. Bilateria all have three tissue layers. This is called.
    Triploblastic: Ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm.
  11. Triplobasts hae three body cavity types:
    Acoelomate, pseudocoelomate, and coelomate.
  12. Porifera (the Sponges). 8k species, mostly marine. Asymmetry or simple radial symmetry. No true tisssues. Should look at the pictures of the sponges. Spicule types: Calcium carbonate, silica, spongin, or sticky.
    Invertabrates Parazoa
  13. Radiata have two Phylas.
    Cnidaria and ctenphoa
  14. Developed mouth opening.
  15. Annelida have some characterists.
    Setae=chitinous bristles; parapodia. have closed cirulatory system with five pumps. respiratory pigment hemoglobin
  16. Annelida: Class Polychaeta
    Mostly seas worms
  17. Annelida Class Clitellata
    Oligochaeta earthworms and Hirudinea leaches ectoparasites
  18. All members produce a cuticle. This is non-living and must be shed to allow growth. This is called molting. Contains Nematoda and Arthropoda
    Phylum Ecdysozoa
  19. What is a cuticle?
    Made of collagen, muscle attachment and water impermeability. Beginings of exoskeleton.
  20. Longitudinal muscles only. AKA threadworms. Hugely diverse. Fresh water, marine, soil, parasitic
  21. THis contains the hookworms, pinworms, and wuchereria
  22. Model organism for studying developmental biology. So much so everything is known about it. GENE exe
    Caenorhabditis elegans
  23. This is the most successful eukaryotic phylum, in diversity and in population numbers.
    Arthropoda Fossils trilobites abundant 250-500 mya
  24. Subphylum meaning biting mouth parts
  25. Subphylum Chelicerata Class Arachnida
  26. subphylum chelicerata class Merostomata
    Horseshoe crabs
  27. subphylum chelicerata class pycnogonida
    seas spiders
  28. This subpylum of Arthopoda contains class diplopoda and crustacea
  29. This is a subphylum of arthopoda; insects. !mill species known. Study is called entomology. Exoskeleton of chitin can be hard as armor or very flexible. Body segments may fuse into tagmata (functional units). compound eyes (ommatidia), in addition to ocelli. Respiratory system: Gills (aquatic) tracheal tubes with spiracles (terrestrial).
  30. Defining trait#1 Notochord. Flexible rod between the digestive tract and the dorsal nerve cord. Defining trait #2 Dorsal hollow nerve cord. All other animals phylum have solid ventral nerve cord. Notochord and nerve cord in vertebrates is encased in spinal skeleton. Pharyngeal slits and post anal tail.
  31. THree subphylas of Chordata:
    Cephalocordata and Urochordata and craniata
  32. What subphylum does Lancelets fall into?
  33. What subphylum do Tunicates falls into?
  34. Hugely diverse category in size and shape. All protect their brain with a bony or cartilaginous skull( cranium). Hagfish is an example. vertebrates: Vertebral column. Bony or cartilaginous. Protects the nerve. Bone or cartilage more flexible than chitin. Living tissue, allows continuous growth. Diversity and complexity of internal organs.
  35. Craniatas that are jawless and finless
  36. Craniatas that have jaws and finned
  37. Where did jaws arise from?
    Phartngeal arches
  38. This class of Gnathostomes has Teeth. Derive from skin scales w/ dentin and enamel. Fins, flaps for stability etc. Lateral line: nerve system attached to the nerve cord. A tube on the side of the fish. Buoyancy assisted by large oil-filled liver and by constant swimming. Skate, Rays, and a few sharks bask, maintain respiration using muscular pharynx and jaw muscles to pump water across gills. Oviparous = egg laying. Eggs retained inside female until hatching.
  39. Superclass of Chondrthyes Actinopterygii, Actinistia, and Dipnoi Bony skeleton. Smooth skin, and mucus glands.
  40. This covers the gills and is used to create water current across gills.
  41. Air-filled cas for bouyancy and gas exchange
    Swim bladder
  42. Gnathostome class that is Ray-finned fish. (Think of Nemos little arm) The usual fin that we see.
  43. Gnathostome class that is Lobe-finned fish. Fleshier, kinda like a shark skin. Bone and arm like. Can be folded in. They can use them to drag themselves
  44. Gnathostome class that has Lope Fin. Air bladders used as a respiratory system. Lungfish. Possible link to tetrapods and life on land.
  45. Gnathostome class that covers salamanders, frogs and toads
  46. What class and order are salamanders from?
    Amphibia Caudata
  47. What class and order are frogs from?
    Amphibia Anura
  48. What class and order are toads from?
    Amphibia Anura
  49. The first repiles was about how long ago?
    350 mya
  50. What makes amphibians different from reptiles?
    Buccal breathing amd thin moist skin. Fish-like eggs and larva have gills.
  51. What makes Reptiles different from amphibians?
    Thoracic breathing. Thickended scaled skin. Water-conserving kidney. Amniotic egg
  52. Who fall into the phylum cordata class reptillia?
    Turtles, lizards, snakes, and crocodiles
  53. What makes lizards differnt from snakes?
    Ear canals w/external openings. and moveable eyelids
  54. teeth in sockets and similar or mammals and early birds. Four-chambered heart, like mammals and birds. Provide post-egg-laying parental care.
  55. Dinosaurs showed up how long ago?
  56. Dinos where what kind of body metabolism?
  57. Keeps optimal temp for metabolic enzymes (endothermic)
    Warm blooded Homeotherms
  58. Uses multiple metabolic enzyme systems to stay active at varying temperatures. (ectothermic)
    Cold blooded Poikiltherm
  59. What was the promary purpose for feathers?
  60. For birds what is the difference between Alticial or precocial births?
    A: naked and needs to be fed. P: down feathers and follow mother around
  61. Who are the ancestors of mammals?
  62. Nerve cord and pharngeal slits, taiil
  63. Spine bone or cartilage
  64. Begining of skull
  65. Has jaw
  66. Four limbs
  67. Eggs on land live birth
  68. teeth in sockets and similar or mammals and early birds. Four-chambered heart, like mammals and birds. Provide post-egg-laying parental care.
  69. mammals showed up how long ago?
    225 mya
  70. Some things that make mammals unique
    Jaw one bone , Inner ear, two knobs at the base of skull
  71. extinct respites & modern mammals. Lighter skulls and better attachments for jaw muscles.
    Synapsids line
  72. extinct replies and modern mammals. Secondary bony palate: better attachment for chewing muscles and ability to eat & breath simultaneously.
    Therapsids line
  73. What are some dental things that makes mammals mammals?
    Canines, incisors, premolars, and molars.
  74. Specialised teeth is called?
  75. All the teeth are the same?
  76. What is the biggest trait of mammals?
    Mammary glands
  77. Milk contains?
    Fat, sugar, protein, vitamins, antibodies, water, and minerals
  78. How do some mammals digest more efficiently?
    Symbiotic bactieria, extra stomach chambers, and extended intestines.
  79. Mammals are also know as?
  80. This group is the only living group of monotremes: epp-laying mammals.
  81. Protheria eggs are?
    Leathery called cloaca
  82. This group is for placental mammals
  83. This group is for marsupials
  84. Embryo is nourished briefly in uterus -> proto-placenta. Fetus is born premature and must crawl to pouch house that shelters nipples. Separation of fecal and urinary/reproductive. Limbs move toward upright posture.
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Exam 3
Exam quiz 3