1. Major cations within the cell?
    Potassium, Magnesium
  2. Major anion within cell?
  3. Major cations outside the cell?
    Sodium, Calcium
  4. Major anion outside the cell?
    Chloride, Bicarbonate
  5. Normal range of Na+
  6. Symptoms of Hyponatremia?
    Confusion, N/V, Seizures**, Coma, Decreased BP**, Tachycardia**, Increased Intracranial Pressure**
  7. Causes of Hyponatremia?
    Diuretics, Vomiting, Diarrhea, Excessive water intake, excessive D5W
  8. Treatments for Hyponatremia?
    Hypertonic IV sol'ns (LR/0.9% NaCL), Fluid restriction, Na+ rich foods
  9. What are some of the early sx of Hypernatremia
    Polyuria, Anorexia, Thirst, Dry Mucous Membranes, Hypotension, Tachycardia
  10. What are some of the late sx of Hypernatremia?
    Confusion, seizures, coma, tremors, muscle twitching, rigid paralysis
  11. What are some of the causes of Hypernatremia?
    Excess fluid loss or sodium intake, Hypertonic tube feedings, Diarrhea, Hyperventilation, Diabetes insipidus, Lg amounts of salt water,
  12. Treatment of Hypernatremia?
    Hypotonic IV (0.3% or 0.45% NaCl; 5%D5W); Diuretics, Decrease sodium intake, Increase oral fluids
  13. Normal range of Potassium K+?
    3.5-5.5 mEq/L
  14. Symptoms of Hypokalemia?
    Shallow respirations, Irritability, Confusion, Weakness, Arrhythmias, Lethargy, Thready Pulse, Decreased intestinal motility
  15. Causes of Hypokalemia?
    Abnormal loss through GI tract or Kidneys (diuretic use), Mg+ deficiency, Metabolic alkalosis
  16. Treatment of Hypokalemia?
    Oral K+ supp, Increase dietary intake, IV (max.20mEq/L/hr!!!)

  17. Causes of Hyperkalemia?
    Massive intake of K+, Impaired renal excretion, Shift from ICF to ECF, Digitalis use; Secondary to cell destruction
  18. Sx of Hyperkalemia?
    Weak/Paralyzed skeletal muscles, Hypotension, V-fib (EKG changes-Tall T Waves/dysrhythmias), Abd cramping/diarrhea
  19. Treatment of Hyperkalemia?
    Diuretics, Dialysis, Kayexalate-(eliminate K+), Insulin and glucose (force K+ into ICF), IV Bicarb
  20. Normal range of Calcium?
    4.5-5.5 mEq/L or 9-11mg/dl
  21. Causes of Hypocalcemia?
    Decreased production of PTH, Acute pancreatitis***; Multiple blood transfusions, Alkalosis, Decreased intake, Steroid use
  22. Sx of Hypocalcemia?
    Muscle tetany (+Trousseau's or Chvostek's sign), Dysphagia, Spontaneous fx's, Tingling around mouth or in extremities
  23. Treatment for Hypocalcemia?
    Oral or IV Ca+ supp; Treat pain and anxiety to prevent hyperventilation-induced resp. alkalosis
  24. Causes of Hypercalcemia?
    Hyperparathyroidism, Malignancy, Vit D overdose, Prolonged immobilization, Thiazide diuretic use (reduces Ca+ secretion)
  25. Sx of Hypercalcemia?
    Decreased memory, confusion, disorientation; fatigue, weakness, absent/depressed reflexes; constipation; dysrhythmias
  26. Normal range of Phosphorous/Phosphate?
    1.7-2.6 mEq/L or 2.5-4.5mg/dl
  27. Causes of Hypophosphatemia?
    Malnourishment/malabsorption, alcohol withdrawal, use of phosphate-binding antacids, inadequate replacement during parenteral nutrition
  28. Sx of Hypophosphatemia?
    CNS depression, confusion, muscle weakness, dysrhythmias, cardiomyopathy
  29. Treatment of Hypophosphatemia?
    Oral supp, ingestion of high phophorous foods, IV Na+ or K+ phophate (10mEq/hr)
  30. Causes of Hyperphosphatemia?
    Acute or chronic renal failure, chemotherapy, excessive ingestion of phosphate or Vit D
  31. Sx of Hyperphosphatemia?
    Early signs: Tachycardia, palpitations

    Late signs: Tetany, hyperflexia
  32. Treatment of Hyperphosphatemia?
    Restrict foods and fluid with Phophate, adequate hydration and correction of hypocalcemic conditions, monitor urine output, avoid carbonated beverages
  33. Which two electrolytes have an inverse relationship due competition for binding with similar pharmalogical structures?
    Calcium & Phosphorous
  34. What is the normal range for Magnesium?
    1.5-2.5 mEq/L or 1.8-3.0 mg/dl
  35. Causes of Hypomagnesemia?
    Prolonged fasting or starvation, Chronic alcoholism, GI fluid loss, Prolonged parenteral nutrition without supp, Diuretics
  36. Sx of Hypomagnesemia?
    Confusion, Hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Tremors, Seizures, Dysrhythmias
  37. Treatment for Hypomagnesemia?
    Oral supps, Increase dietary intake, Parenteral IV or IM Mg+ when severe
  38. Causes of Hypermagnesemia?
    Increased intake or ingestion with renal insufficiency or failure
  39. Sx of Hypermagnesemia?
    Lethargy/drowsiness, N/V, Loss of deep tendon reflexes, Resp. and Cardiac arrest
  40. Treatment of Hypermagnesemia?
    Increase fluid intake, (for emergent) IV Ca+ Chloride or Ca+Gluconate, Dialysis
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