4220 Final Exam comprehensive combined questions

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  1. What is phase one of implementation
    • Adoption of the program- a part of marketing(diffusion theory) innovators, early adopters, etc,
    • Marketing keys: understanding priority population,
    • knowing how/when to segment the priority population,
    • understand diffusion theory
  2. What is Phase 2 of implementation
    • Identify,  prioritize, create planning timetables and timelines
    • Gantt charts
    • PERT charts
    • CPM (critical path method)
  3. What is a Gantt Chart and what phase of implementation would you use one in
    (more common used) focuses on major tasks shows the planned time frame and when the task was actually completed. Phase 2 identifying and prioritizing the tasks to be completed
  4. What is a PERT chart and what phase of implementation is it
    • Program evaluation and review technique
    • used for business project management, works well if you’re not sure about duration of tasks, uses three estimates for duration: optimisitic, pessimistic, and probabilistic
    • Phase 2 identifying and prioritizing the tasks to be completed
  5. What is CPM and what phase of implementation is it in
    • Critical path method
    • Phase 2 identifying and prioritizing the tasks to be completed
    • works well when you feel confident about the duration of each task, items on critical path cannot be delayed without delaying the program
  6. What is phase 3 of implementation
    • establishing a system of management
    • Management: the process of achieving results through controlling human, financial, and technical resources
    • The efficient, satisfactory management of a health promotion program is vital to its long-term success
  7. What is phase 4 of implementation
    putting the plans into action
  8. What are 3 ways to put a plan into action (phase 4)
    • Pilot testing
    • phased in
    • total program
  9. What is pilot testing (phase 4 putting plans into action)
    trying the program out with a small group from the priority population to identify any problems
  10. What is phased in with regards to phase 4 putting plans into action
    allows planners to have more control over the program helps to protect you from getting in over you head, works well when you have a very large priority population
  11. What are 4 ways you can "phase in" in phase 4  putting the plans into action
    • different program offerings
    • limit number of participants
    • choice of location
    • participant ability
  12. what is different program offerings in phase 4 putting the plans into action for phased in step
    start by offering one thing for first 6 months then offer that one class and another class next six months
  13. What is participant ability in phase 4 putting plans into action for phased in step
    offer start with beginners, then offer intermediate, then offer to experts
  14. What is total program in relation to phasing in on phase 4 putting the plans into action
    all in- priority population exposed at same time
  15. What is first day of implementation in regards to phase 4 putting the plans into action
    launch, rollout, kick off.  First day essentially an extension of the fourth P of marketing (promotion).
  16. When launching a program what is something you should consider
    launch to conincide with other already occurring event (weight loss program and new years)
  17. What is Phase 5 in implementation
    Ending or sustaining a programHow long should we run the program
  18. what does deciding to end it mean in relation to phase 5 ending or sustaining a program
    goals and objective met, resources available, need to re-focus
  19. What does how to sustain mean in relation to phase 5 ending or sustaining a program
    • Work to institutionalize (PE program part of regular school day)
    • Evaluate program to show it’s merit/worth
    • Advocate for the program
    • Partner with others to share resources and responsibilities
    • Revisit and revise the rationale
  20. What are the major concerns of implementation
    medical, safety, ethical, and legal concerns
  21. What do medical and safety include as one of the major concerns of implementation
    • Doctors note if medical risk
    • Safe location, appropriate security
    • Bldg codes met facilities free from hazards
    • Properly trained qualified instructors
    • First aid supplies
  22. What does ethical include as one of the major concerns of implementation
    • Code of Ethics for the Health Education Profession to guide the work of HE; highest standards
    • The Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subject Research                                    Respect for persons,
    • Beneficence – maximizing benefits and mimimizing harm; Justice – fairness
  23. What does legal consist of as one of the major concerns of implementation
    • Negligence – failing to act in a prudent manner
    • Omission: not doing something when you should
    • Commission: doing something you should not be doing (not certified instructors)
    • Reduce risk of liability: select qualified certified instructors; written guidelines, require informed consent, limit advice, safe environment, liability insurance
  24. What are the three types of evaluation designs and what is included in them
    • non-experimental one group design
    • quasi experimental - not random assign (comparison group)experimental - random assignment to groups
  25. What is meant by effect size
    Tells you if the difference you see in groups (or from pretest or posttest) is meaningful
  26. Other than my program, what are possible reasons I may – or may not – see change in my participants?
    • Changes participants not related to participation: maturation, history
    • Changes dependant on who was observed: selection, attrition, regression
    • Changes related to methods of observation: testing instrumentation
  27. What is a hypothesis?
    Hypothesis: a tentative explanation, a prediction of the outcome, an educated guess, based on research question
  28. What are the five steps in hypothesis testing?
    • state the null and alternative hypothesis
    • Determine alpha (significance level)
    • choose appropriate test statistic
    • calculate p-value (computer does)
    • compare p-value to alpha and either reject or accept the null hypothesis
  29. When would you reject the null hypothesis?
    reject null if p-value < alpha
  30. When would you accept the null hypothesis?
    accept null if p-value > alpha (is the level you’re willing to accept that your conclusions happened by chance.)
  31. When would you use an independent groups t test?
    comparing two independent groups
  32. When would you us a paired samples t test?
    comparing 2 dependant groups (pretest, posttest)
  33. When would you use an ANOVA?
    When comparing 3+ independent groups (use post hoc tests to find where difference lies)
  34. In linear regression what is meant by predictive ability?
    One variable can or can’t predict how the other variable will change
  35. IN linear regression what is meant by variance?
    How well does the predictor variable explain the change in the dependent variable
  36. Ultimately, what is the main goal of a health promotion program?
    Behavior Change
  37. What is meant by the term “stakeholder”?
    Any person or organization with a vested interest in a health program, usually decision makers, program partners, or clients
  38. What is the purpose of a rationale?
    To gain the support of decision makers (key people) in order to obtain the necessary resources to ensure that the planning process and the eventual implementation proceed as smoothly as possible
  39. What are the 5 steps in the Generalized Model for Program Planning?
    • Assessing needs,
    • setting goals and objectives,
    • developing interventions,
    • implementing interventions,
    • evaluating results
  40. Why is “theory” considered the backbone of program planning?
    Theories can provide answers to program developers’ questions regarding: Why people aren’t already engaging in a desirable behavior of interest, How to go about changing their behaviors, and What factors to look at then evaluating a programs focus
  41. What is a needs assessment?
    The process of identifying, analyzing, and prioritizing the needs of a priority population
  42. Why is a needs assessment important?
    • helps insure appropriate use of planning resources,
    • failure to perform one may prevent or delay adequate attention directed to a more important health problem
    • can help determine internal capacity of a community to address specific needs,
    • develop a focus for intervention,
    • a reference point for future assessments,
    • logical place to start
  43. What 6 things should I consider when choosing a measurement instrument?
    • reliability,
    • validity,
    • objectivity,
    • culturally competent,
    • reading level,
    • is permission needed,
    • cost, other conditions
  44. What is the difference between a goal and an objective?
    • Goal: general statement of intent, future event; long range purpose, no deadline, often not measured in exact terms, includes who what;
    • Objective: smaller steps to reach goals more precise than goals, written in measurable terms, several levels
  45. What are the four elements of a well-written objective?
    • Outcome (what),
    • Priority population (who),
    • Condition (When),
    • Criterion (how much change)
  46. What is a logic model?
    Provides stakeholders with a road map: shows the relationship between the resources that go into your program, the activities the program undertakes, and the changes or benefits that result; its what you plan to do and what you want to happen
  47. How would you define evaluation
    • a process of reflection whereby the value of certain actions in relation to projects programs or policies are assessed (did I meet objectives, did I accomplish goals, did I realize the mission)
    • 2nd define:  the comparison of an object of interest against a standard of acceptability. Follow the framework
  48. why should it be done (evaluation)
    • to determine achievement of objectives,
    • to improve program implementation,
    • to provide accountability to stakeholders,
    • to increase support for initiatives and inform policy decisions,
    • to contribute to the scientific base
  49. What is Process evaluation
    talking about us not participants.  Measurements obtained during the implementation of program activities to control assure or improve the quality of performance or delivery
  50. What is Formative evaluation
    talking about us not participants.  Any combination of measurements obtained and judgements made before or during the implementation of materials, methods, activities or programs to control, assure or improve the quality of performance or delivery
  51. What is impact evaluation
    immediate observable effects see in participants.  Immediate observable effects of a program, leading to the intended outcomes of a program; intermediate outcomes
  52. What is outcome evaluation
    might not be able to see right after program ends (longterm goals).  Ultimate goals or product of a program or treatment, measured by morbidity, mortality statistics in a population, vital measures, symptoms, signs, or physiological indicators
  53. What is Summative evaluation
    involves both impact and outcome.  any combination of measurments obtained and judgments made that permit conclusions to be drawn about impact, outcome, or benefits of a program or method.
  54. What are the six steps in the CDC’s evaluation framework
    • Engaging Stakeholders
    • describing the program
    • focusing evaluation
    • gathering credible data
    • justifying the conclusion
    • ensuring use and sharing lessons learned
  55. What happens at step 1 in the CDC evaluation framework (engaging stakeholders)
    Who: those involved in program operations, those served or affected by the program, the primary users of the evaluation results. Involve them in evaluation efforts, you need to understand their expectations, they decide your fate
  56. What happens at step 2 in the CDC's evaluation framework (describing the program)
    sets the frame of reference for all subsequent decisions in the evaluation process, should at least describe mission goals, and objectives, good use logic model
  57. What happens at step 3 in the CDC's evaluation framework (Focusing evaluation design)
    make sure interests of stakeholders are addressed, using time and resources efficiently
  58. What happens at step 4 in the CDC's evaluation framework (Gathering credible data)
    decide on measurment indicators (sources of evidence, quality and quantity of evidence, logistics of collecting evidence)
  59. What happens at step 5 in the CDC's evaluation framework (Justifying the conclusion)
    comparing the evidence against the standards of acceptability, judging the worth, merit or significance of the program, creating recommendation for actions based upon results
  60. What happens in step 6 of the CDC's evaluation framework (Ensuring use and sharing lessons learned)
    use and dissemination of the results, address the needs of each group of stakeholders
  61. What are the four standards of evaluation
    • Utility
    • feasibility
    • propriety
    • accuracy
  62. What does utility mean in the four standards of evaluation
    the information needs of evaluation users are satisfied
  63. What does feasibility mean in the four standards of evaluation
    the evaluation is viable and pragmatic
  64. What does propriety mean in the four standards of evaluation
    the evaluation is ethical
  65. What does accuracy mean in the four standards of evaluation
    the evaluation produces findings that are considered correct (valid and reliable)
  66. What are the different types of financial resources
    • Hard money
    • soft money (Third party support, in-kind support, cost sharing/matching, gift, grant
  67. What is hard money
    ongoing support (profit, sales fees)
  68. What is soft money
    doesn’t last forever. Third party support, in-kind support, cost sharing/matching, grants and gifts
  69. What is third party support in reference to soft money
    the employee gets services from Gold Gym but it is the employer who is picking up the costs.
  70. What is In-Kind support in reference to soft money
    • volunteers,
    • donated goods,
    • organizational sponsorship,
    • funds from another source that can be dedicated to your project (dean donated my time to project)
  71. What is cost sharing/matching in reference to soft money
    you share the cost of the funding of the program. You match the amount of funding you get
  72. What is a gift in reference to soft money
    • given gratuitously voluntarily,
    • donor does not control use,
    • no direct benefit to the donor,
    • no quid pro quo,
    • no intellectual or copyright rights to donor
  73. What is a grant in reference to soft money
    • accountability for spending,
    • restrictions on spending,
    • reporting requirements,
    • defined obligations,
    • start and end dates,
    • direct benefit to donor,
    • expected return of unused funds
  74. What are direct costs
    can be identified specifically with a particular project
  75. What are indirect costs
    • F&A,
    • overhead costs,
    • cost incurred for common or joint objectives that cannot be identified specifically with a particular project (rent, lights, heat, service contracts for copier fax machine computers) phone lines, accountant who works for agnecty and handles all accounts
    • Most sponsors will cover indirect costs based on a percentage of direct costs
  76. What do health educators “market
    Information, ideas, goods (tangible items bike helmets), services, events, behaviors
  77. What are the five functions of the marketing process
    • using market research to determine the needs and desires of present/prospective clients from priority population (covered in needs assessment)
    • developing a product that satisfies the needs and desires of the clients (covered in needs assessment)
    • developing informative and persuasive communication flows
    • Ensuring that the product is provided in an appropriate manner
    • Keeping the clients satisfied and loyal
  78. What are the three keys to the marketing process
    • understanding priority population
    • knowing how/when to segment the priority population
    • understand diffusion theory
  79. What does understanding the priority population mean as one of the three keys to marketing process
    How they see the world, how they spend their time, what is important to them
  80. What does knowing how/when to segment the priority population mean as one of the three keys to the marketing process
    • Factors or variables- demographics, geographics,
    • benefits sought
    • behavioral/lifestyle/psychographics
    • factors
    • usually multiple factors used
  81. What does understanding diffusion theory mean as one of the three keys to the marketing process
    Diffusion of innovations is the process by which an innovation is communicated through channels over time among members of a social system
  82. What is diffusion theory
    People tend to follow the lead of others.  Behavior is contagious, bring in Diffusion of innovation
  83. What are the four categories of program adopters
    • Innovators,
    • early adopters,
    • early and late majority,
    • laggards
  84. What do the innovators do as one of the four categories of program adopters
    they want to be first to do things, take chances
  85. What do the early adopters do as one of the four categories of program adopters
    (change agents at take off) tend to be opinion leaders, seen as role models
  86. What do early and late majority adopters do as one of the four categories of program adopters
    Early and late majority (wait for it to become a norm) early majority is greatly influenced by opinion leaders; once they adopt it the innovation is considered mainstream
  87. What do the Laggards do as one of the four categories of program adopters
    last to become involved, if at all suspicious of innovation limited communication networks
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4220 Final Exam comprehensive combined questions
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