Soc 1101 Readings Prelim 2

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  1. "The Nancy Chain" (Hochschild 2000)
    • The global care chain: involves child care and elder care
    • Demand?: More women in US are working and need a nanny, upwards of 60% all moms in US w/ kids are in labor force
    • asymmetry of gender barrier, men don't stay at home as much as women enter the labor force. Women want to work b/c there's a higher value on work than child rearing, as anyone can raise children so it's looked down upon
    • Supply?: economic incentive, women from poorer countries make more money being a nanny in a richer family even if they're educated. Now they have to find a nanny of their own
    • Emotional labor: job goes beyond just making something, it's internal and fundamental to your character. You have to care for someone else' children and you can't treat it like a factory job. It's a different kind of exhausting work, requiring mental as well as physical dedication. In an intimate setting over a prolonged period of time and requires heavy investment to maintain the job and be good at it.
    • Is love skimmed off from the poor for the rich? How does this affect inequality? There is systematic inequality here
    • Social difference in global care chain: emotional energy used in workplace in 1st world country b/c women enter service-oriented jobs more
    • Critical Modernist approach: it isn't going to stop, so Upside: people coming to US make more money and send money back, increasing probability of children to do better in life. Downside: ethical considerations where children are left behind for years at a time
    • Axes of social difference: global perspective, gender, and racial 
    • As long as caring work is devalued, it will ensure that it is continually passed down the chain
  2. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (Goffman 1953)
    • Symbolic interactionism: Micro-level theory in which shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions form the basic motivations behind people's actions
    • These routines keep social situations fluid and controlled, social life is seen as a performance
    • Impression Management: first impressions are important, so one might smile so one can appear to be a happy, well-adjusted, and stress-free individual. Changes in language from talking to different groups. We help others manage impressions by not calling them out
    • We "give" impressions as verbal communications and "give off" non-verbal communication that usually validates what was given, but can also invalidate
    • The Front: part of the performance, it's all of the things we do when we meet someone to uphold a performance. Example: doctor's office w/ lab coats, start off friendly convo, leave, come back all business, leave, come back again friendly
  3. "Becoming a Marihuana User" (Becker 1953)
    • Sociological perspective on drug use: at the time, most people thought drug use could be explained through individual traits/characteristics, but he accounts for marijuana use through social interactions
    • Learning to smoke is a social process: one must learn from experienced users how to do it and then how to perceive/interpret the events that follow
  4. "Smoking Becomes 'Deviant Behavior'" NYTimes 1988
    "Tobacco Control, Stigma, and Public Health: Rethinking the Relations" Bayer and Stuber (2006)
    • Progression of changing definition of deviance: evidence emerged that smoking was bad for you and for everyone around you, so smokers started to go from social to isolated
    • Cigarettes or marijuana more deviant?: depends on context like what state you're in and how old you are; no campaign around second hand smoke from marijuana being harmful; pot confined to private places especially where illegal; pot associated as gateway drug
    • Function of stigma? shames people; used in public health in AIDS crisis (bad) and cigarette smoking
  5. Connected, Christakis and Fowler (2009)
    • Social network - a specific set of connections between people in a group. The ties between these people allow them to do things that a disconnected group of individuals cannot. 
    • Sociologists study: how groups accomplish complex tasks, how information flows, how norms spread, how connections are made, how networks affect inequality
    • Bucket brigade (linear connections), Phone tree (distributes information quickly), Military (small tight groups, know each other so well they're willing to risk their lives)
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Soc 1101 Readings Prelim 2
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Titles of readings and authors with descriptions
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