Surgery Dr Q: Chapter 13

  1. The concentration of waste anesthetic gas that is hazardous to humans is surprisingly ____ to determine with exactness
  2. What type of anesthetic agents are likely to have a greater long-term toxicity?
    Those retained by the body and metabolized more so than those eliminated through the lungs
  3. Which anesthetic gas is thought to be the least toxic inhalation agent in use?
    Isoflurane, followed by sevoflurane
  4. Are the levels of inhalant anesthetics used in vet hospitals carcinogenic?
  5. What did The American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Trace Anesthetic Gases in 1999 determine?
    That chronic exposure to high levels of anesthetic waste have adverse health effects but no association with the low levels that is used in vet hospitals
  6. NIOSH
    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
  7. Concentration of any volatile gas anesthetic should no exceed ___ ppm when used alone and not exceed ___ ppm when used with nitrous oxide
    • 2
    • 0.5
  8. Nitrous oxide concentration should not exceed ___ ppm
  9. How many air changed per hour in rooms which anesthetic gas is used?
    • 15
    • 20 is preferred
  10. Passive scavenging system is best suited for rooms adjacent to exterior of the building and ineffective for interior rooms where the distance to the outlet is more than ___ feet
    20 (7 m)
  11. Charcoal cartridges must be replaced after ___ hours of use or after a weight gain of ___ g.
    • 12
    • 50
  12. Drawbacks of charcoal cartridges are
    • Inability to absorb nitrous oxide
    • Inefficiency at flow rates greater than 2 L/min
  13. Are machine leaks controlled by scavenging systems?
  14. If both nitrous oxide and oxygen are used what kind of pressure tests must be done?
    Both high and low pressure tests
  15. If only oxygen is used what type of pressure test must be done?
    Low pressure test
  16. How often should low pressure tests be done?
  17. How often should high pressure tests be done?
    Weekly and whenever nitrous oxide tank is changed
  18. Short term effects of waste anesthetic gases
    • Fatigue/drowsiness 
    • Headache
    • Nausea
    • Depression
    • Irritability
  19. Long term effects of waste anesthetic gases
    • Reproductive disorders
    • Liver/kidney damage
    • Bone marrow disorders
    • Danger to fetal development
    • Nervous system dysfunction
  20. Factors increasing waste anesthetic gases
    • Higher number of anesthetic procedures
    • Higher flow rates during anesthesia
    • Lack of machine maintenance
    • Lack of scavenging system
    • Mask/chamber inductions
    • Lack of room ventilation
  21. Highest levels of waste anesthetic gases occur with what?
    Anesthetic liquid spills with rapid evaporation into room air
  22. What do scavenging systems do?
    Draw expired air and release it outside of the building
  23. Complications with scavenging systems
    • Too much vacuum pulling on reservoir bag (patient not getting enough anesthesia or oxygen to breathe)
    • Blockages to the scavenging tubing causes gases to accumulate (patient getting too much anesthetic and more human exposure)
  24. Injectable drug dangers with wildlife capture drugs (etorphine/carfentanil)
    • Absorbed through mm
    • Potent and could be fatal
    • Buddy system
    • Wear gloves
    • Have reversal agents ready
    • Proper sharp/biohazard disposal
    • Proper PPE
  25. Hazards when restraining/lifting heavy animals
    • Lift with legs not back
    • Get help from other people or chemicals
  26. Hazards with bite wounds
    • Proper restraint for animal and procedure
    • Reading animal behavior
    • Anticipating responses and actions
  27. Long term toxicity of inhalation anesthetics is thought to be caused by what?
    Release of toxic metabolites during the breakdown of these drugs within the body
  28. Anesthetic most closely associated with neurologic and adverse reproductive effects?
    Nitrous oxide
  29. Odor of halothane may be detected by a person when levels reach minimum of what?
    33 ppm
  30. What can be used to monitor waste anesthetic gas levels?
    Passive dosimeter badge
  31. Safest way to transport large high pressure tanks such as oxygen is by?
    Using a handcart
  32. Technician can reduce amount of waste by
    • Using cuffed ET tubes
    • Ensuring anesthetic machine has been tested for leaks
    • Using injectable agents 
    • Make sure reservoir bag inflates/deflates with patients respirations 
    • Have anesthetic machine maintenance bianually
  33. This term refers to nitrous oxide, halothane, isoflurane and other anesthetic gas and vapors.
    Waste anesthetic gas
  34. ____ from anesthetic machines are a significant source of operating room pollution and are not reduced by a scavenging system.
  35. Are liquid anesthetics spilled on the skin absorbed into circulation?
  36. Active scavenging systems could create too much negative pressure in breathing circuit, the anesthetist would notice this by noticing what?
    Empty/flat rebreathing bag
  37. 2 dangers associated with compressed gas tanks
    • Flammable
    • Projectile pressure
  38. Measure to where when using a feeding tube on a puppy
    Last rib
  39. 3 things animals are allergic to
    • Environmental
    • Food allergies
    • Flea allergies
  40. What to do when animals heart rate drops
    • Turn off/down vaporizer
    • Check other vitals (RR, BP)
    • Give atropine
  41. What to do when patient wont stay asleep
    • Turn up vaporizer
    • Give patient breaths 
    • Give more injectable drug
    • Check ET tube placement
    • Check anesthetic machine errors
  42. Major risk times with anesthesia
    • Induction
    • When waking up
  43. Most important part of a dental
  44. Dental formulas for canines
    Deciduous teeth: 2 (i3/3 c1/1 p3/3)

    Permanent teeth: 2 (I3/3 C1/1 P4/4 M2/3)
  45. Dental formulas for cats
    Deciduous teeth: 2 (i3/3 c1/1 p3/2)

    Permanent teeth: 2 (I3/3 C1/1 P3/2 M1/1)
  46. Acidosis results in what
    • Decreased HCO3
    • Increase in CO2
  47. Alkalosis results in what
    • Increased HCO3
    • Decreased CO2
  48. Acid-base imbalances can lead to
    • Impaired cardiovascular function
    • Changes in neurological status
    • Respiratory impairment 
    • Altered response to drug therapies
Card Set
Surgery Dr Q: Chapter 13
Surgery Chapter 13