Surgery Dr Q: Chapter 13
The concentration of waste anesthetic gas that is hazardous to humans is surprisingly ____ to determine with exactness
What type of anesthetic agents are likely to have a greater long-term toxicity?
Those retained by the body and metabolized more so than those eliminated through the lungs
Which anesthetic gas is thought to be the least toxic inhalation agent in use?
Isoflurane, followed by sevoflurane
Are the levels of inhalant anesthetics used in vet hospitals carcinogenic?
What did The American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Trace Anesthetic Gases in 1999 determine?
That chronic exposure to high levels of anesthetic waste have adverse health effects but no association with the low levels that is used in vet hospitals
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Concentration of any volatile gas anesthetic should no exceed ___ ppm when used alone and not exceed ___ ppm when used with nitrous oxide
Nitrous oxide concentration should not exceed ___ ppm
How many air changed per hour in rooms which anesthetic gas is used?
20 is preferred
Passive scavenging system is best suited for rooms adjacent to exterior of the building and ineffective for interior rooms where the distance to the outlet is more than ___ feet
20 (7 m)
Charcoal cartridges must be replaced after ___ hours of use or after a weight gain of ___ g.
Drawbacks of charcoal cartridges are
Inability to absorb nitrous oxide
Inefficiency at flow rates greater than 2 L/min
Are machine leaks controlled by scavenging systems?
If both nitrous oxide and oxygen are used what kind of pressure tests must be done?
Both high and low pressure tests
If only oxygen is used what type of pressure test must be done?
Low pressure test
How often should low pressure tests be done?
How often should high pressure tests be done?
Weekly and whenever nitrous oxide tank is changed
Short term effects of waste anesthetic gases
Long term effects of waste anesthetic gases
Bone marrow disorders
Danger to fetal development
Nervous system dysfunction
Factors increasing waste anesthetic gases
Higher number of anesthetic procedures
Higher flow rates during anesthesia
Lack of machine maintenance
Lack of scavenging system
Lack of room ventilation
Highest levels of waste anesthetic gases occur with what?
Anesthetic liquid spills with rapid evaporation into room air
What do scavenging systems do?
Draw expired air and release it outside of the building
Complications with scavenging systems
Too much vacuum pulling on reservoir bag (patient not getting enough anesthesia or oxygen to breathe)
Blockages to the scavenging tubing causes gases to accumulate (patient getting too much anesthetic and more human exposure)
Injectable drug dangers with wildlife capture drugs (etorphine/carfentanil)
Absorbed through mm
Potent and could be fatal
Have reversal agents ready
Proper sharp/biohazard disposal
Hazards when restraining/lifting heavy animals
Lift with legs not back
Get help from other people or chemicals
Hazards with bite wounds
Proper restraint for animal and procedure
Reading animal behavior
Anticipating responses and actions
Long term toxicity of inhalation anesthetics is thought to be caused by what?
Release of toxic metabolites during the breakdown of these drugs within the body
Anesthetic most closely associated with neurologic and adverse reproductive effects?
Odor of halothane may be detected by a person when levels reach minimum of what?
What can be used to monitor waste anesthetic gas levels?
Passive dosimeter badge
Safest way to transport large high pressure tanks such as oxygen is by?
Using a handcart
Technician can reduce amount of waste by
Using cuffed ET tubes
Ensuring anesthetic machine has been tested for leaks
Using injectable agents
Make sure reservoir bag inflates/deflates with patients respirations
Have anesthetic machine maintenance bianually
This term refers to nitrous oxide, halothane, isoflurane and other anesthetic gas and vapors.
Waste anesthetic gas
____ from anesthetic machines are a significant source of operating room pollution and are not reduced by a scavenging system.
Are liquid anesthetics spilled on the skin absorbed into circulation?
Active scavenging systems could create too much negative pressure in breathing circuit, the anesthetist would notice this by noticing what?
Empty/flat rebreathing bag
2 dangers associated with compressed gas tanks
Measure to where when using a feeding tube on a puppy
3 things animals are allergic to
What to do when animals heart rate drops
Turn off/down vaporizer
Check other vitals (RR, BP)
What to do when patient wont stay asleep
Turn up vaporizer
Give patient breaths
Give more injectable drug
Check ET tube placement
Check anesthetic machine errors
Major risk times with anesthesia
When waking up
Most important part of a dental
Dental formulas for canines
Deciduous teeth: 2 (i3/3 c1/1 p3/3)
Permanent teeth: 2 (I3/3 C1/1 P4/4 M2/3)
Dental formulas for cats
Deciduous teeth: 2 (i3/3 c1/1 p3/2)
Permanent teeth: 2 (I3/3 C1/1 P3/2 M1/1)
Acidosis results in what
Increase in CO2
Alkalosis results in what
Acid-base imbalances can lead to
Impaired cardiovascular function
Changes in neurological status
Altered response to drug therapies
Surgery Dr Q: Chapter 13
Surgery Chapter 13