What are differentials for diarrhea in pigs less than 1 week old? (5)
- C. perfringens Type A and C
- C. difficile
- Coronaviruses (PEDV, PDCoV, TGE)
- E. coli
What are differentials for diarrhea in pigs > 1 week old? (4)
- Coronaviruses (PEDV, PDCoV, TGE)
- E. coli
Describe ETEC pathogenesis.
pili attach to and colonize the small intestine, elaborate cytotoxins--> diarrhea
What lesions are associated with E. coli diarrhea? (3)
watery diarrhea, have villi, have chyle in lymphatics
Describe clinical characteristics of E. coli diarrhea.
- profuse watery diarrhea in 1-5 day old piglets
- rapid dehydration
- sever depression
- death in 1-2 days
Describe C. perfringens type A lesions. (2)
- gross evidence of diarrhea
- no specific lesions
How is C. perf type A diagnosed? (3)
mid SI for histopath and culture, genotyping
What are lesions associated with C. difficile? (2)
mesocolonic edema, colitis
How is diagnosis of C. difficile achieved? (2)
fixed colon, colon or colon contents for ELISA
Describe presentation with C. perf type C.
acute diarrhea with blood in pigs 1-7 days old
What lesions are associated with C. perf type C? (2)
acute hemorrhagic enteritis, chronic necrotic enteritis (ropy gut- beta toxin)
How is bacterial diarrhea managed in suckling piglets? (3)
- antibiotic therapy based on sensitivity- gentamicin, spectinomycin, sulfatrim, naxcel
- fluid replacement- usually not practical
- warm, dry, draft free environment
Describe control and prevent of bacterial diarrhea in suckling piglets. (5)
sanitation, treat sows, prompt and frequent nursing, decrease stress, vaccinate sows for lactogenic immunity
Describe characteristics of viral versus bacterial diarrhea.
- Viral: osmotic, malabsorptive diarrhea due to villous atrophy, acidic pH
- Bacterial: secretory diarrhea, alkaline pH
What gross lesions are present with viral enteritis (rota and corona)?
- mesenteric lacteals are empty, indicating malabsorption
- corona is typically more severe and more rapid onset
How is coronavirus transmitted? (3)
feco-oral (shedding peaks 5-6dpi), personnel, fomites
Describe the pathogenesis of coronavirus.
attacks mature villous enterocytes throughout SI--> atrophic enteritis (villous blunting)--> acute malabsorptive diarrhea--> dehydration and metabolic acidosis--> high morbidity
Clinical signs of coronovirus.
watery diarrhea, +/- vomiting
_________ has very high mortality; so much so that...
PEDV (coronavirus); euthanize young neonates b/c they are going to die anyway.
How is coronavirus treated? (3)
- easy access to water and electrolytes, increase temp in farrowing house and nursery
- warn producer of high death losses
Describe management and control of coronavirus. (2)
- feed gestating sows and gilts infective intestinal tracts, so they get sick and build immunity so colostrum has antibodies
_________ in all sow herds; sows shed when...
Rotavirus "milk scours"; they are stressed.
What animals are usually clinically affected by rotavirus? What are consequences?
1-4 week old piglets; mild diarrhea then build immunity
Treatment and control of rotavirus.
none- address sanitation issues
What coccidia affect pigs? What age pigs are usually affected?
Isospora suis; 5-15 day old pigs (5 day PPP)
What are signs of coccidiosis in pigs? (6)
diarrhea, dehydration, weight loss, high morbidity, no response to antibiotics, low mortality
How is coccidiosis diagnosed? (3)
- hx of diarrhea in 7-14d old pigs
- oocysts seen on fecal
- grossly atrophic enteritis in terminal third of SI
How is coccidosis treated in pigs? (3)
- amprolium, trimethoprim-sulfa
- extreme sanitation
Causes of post-weaning diarrhea. (6)
E. coli (hemolytic), Salmonella, Coccidiosis, Rotavirus, Coronavirus, Lawsonia
Describe the pathogenesis of hemolytic E. coli in post-weaning pigs.
intestinal colonization--> proliferation--> exotoxin elaboration--> diarrhea, edema disease, or diarrhea and edema disease
What is edema disease?
vascular effects and CNS signs due to accumulation of fluid in CNS--> focal encephalomalacia--> acute death, poor doers
Risk factors for post-weaning E. coli. (3)
- fastest growing pigs
- post-weaning stress (move pens, no more milky)
- soy hypersensitivity
How is post-weaning E. coli treated? (2)
How can we prevent it?
- dietary management- zinc oxide, organic acids
- live, oral vaccine given on day 1 of weaning and a week later
What are the 2 types of Salmonella in pigs? What does each cause?
- S. choleraesuis- septicemia and enteritis
- S. typhimurium- enteritis and septicemia
Clinical signs of Salmonellosis.
- typhimurium: diarrhea in older nursery pigs, weight loss, dehydration, febrile
- choleraesuis: cyanosis, febrile, fever, shallow cough
Lesions associated with Salmonellosis. (3)
pneumonia, button ulcers on mucosal surface of colon, inflamed intestines
How do you diagnose Salmonella?
culture (BUT this is a normal inhabitant of the pig...must accompany clinical signs consistent with Salmonella)
How is salmonellosis controlled? (2)
- MLV vaccine for cholerasuis
Common sequela to Salmonellosis is __________.
rectal strictures (pot belly on your pigs b/c they can poop)
Diarrhea causes in grower/ finisher pigs. (7)
Lawsonia, Salmonella, Coronavirus, Spirochetes, Whipworms, gastric ulcers, PCV2
What is a huge problem associated with Lawsonia?
subclinical infections (clinical pigs are just the tip of the iceberg)
What are gross lesions with Lawsonia? (4)
- proliferative ileitis
- +/- necrotizing
- +/- hemorrhagic
- +/- may spread to colon
How is lawsonia treated and controlled? (3)
- tylosin, CTC (tetracycline)
- monitor stools to titrate antibiotic program
PCV2 causes lesions that look like __________; therefore,...
ileitis (lawsonia); send samples in for diagnostics!
Swine dysentery is caused by _________, which is shed by ________.
Brachyspira hyodysenteriae; mice (it occurs in free-range pigs)
Lesions with swine dysentery.
mucohemorrhagic fibrinous colitis (limited to large intestine) in grow/finish pigs
Describe treatment and control of swine dysentery. (3)
- medicated feed- tamulin, carbadox, lincomycin
- integrated pest control
Clinical signs of Trichuris suis. (7)
watery, bloody diarrhea, anorexia, anemia, poor growth, dehydration, emaciation
How is trichuris treated?
- fenbendazole [ivermectin doens't work for these, remember]
- sanitation (live in environment for many years)
Describe Ascaris suum diagnosis.
L3 larvae migrate through liver and lungs--> liver and lung scarring--> coughed up and swallowed--> look for these lesions on liver (milk spots)
Treatment and prevention of Ascaris suum. (3)
- fenbendazole, ivermectin, piperazone
- sanitation (eggs live for a while in environment)
- zoonotic- be careful