abn psych exam 3

  1. what is the checklist for personality disorders?
    • 1. long term, rigid pattern of inner experience and behavior that leads to dysfunction in: cognition, emotion, social interactions, and impulsivity
    • 2. their pattern is significantly different from the ones found in their culture 
    • 3. causes distress or impairment
  2. 3 clusters of PD
    • -odd/eccentric 
    • -dramatic 
    • -anxiety
  3. what does the categorical approach for PDs assume
    • -problematic traits are either present or non present 
    • -PD is either displayed or not displayed 
    • - the person doesnt show personality issues outside of their disorder
  4. what does the dimensional approach of PDs believe
    PDs differ in their degree of severity rather than absence or presence
  5. what PDs are in odd/eccentric cluster

    paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal
  6. what PDs are in dramatic behavior cluster? 
    antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic
  7. what PDs are in anxiety cluster 
    avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive
  8. describe odd personality disorders
    • -odd or eccentric behaviors that are similar to, but not as extreme as schizophrenia 
    • -extreme suspicion, social withdrawl, peculiar ways of thinking and perceiving things 
    • -often results in isolation
  9. describe paranoid PD
    • -deep distrust in others and suspicious of their motives 
    • -thinks everyone wants to cause them hard 
    • -overly trustful in their own ideas and abilities
  10. what are the 2 theories on the cause of paranoid PD?
    psychodynamic- pattern to childhood with demanding parents that are distant rigid, overcontrolling, and rejecting with unreasonable demands 

    biological-genetic causes
  11. what are the 2 types of therapists for paranoid PD
    object relations therapist- psychodynamic therapists who focus on the relationships that the patient has a deep wish to have 

    self therapists- psychodynamic clinicians who focus on the need for a healthy and united self: that was lost from focusing on the negative of others
  12. describe schizoid PD
    persistently avoid and are removed from social relationships and demonstrate little emotion... but not from paranoia or distrust, they genuinely prefer to be alone
  13. 2 theories in the cause of schizoid PD
    psychodynamic- roots in unsatisfiable need for human contact. their parents were unaccepting or abusive of their kids, so the child becomes unable to give or receive love. they cope by avoiding all relationships 

    cognitive- deficiencies in their thinking. their thoughts are vague, empty, without much meaning.
  14. what are the 2 treatments for schizoid PD
    cognitive- they are asked to write down and think about different emotions or pleasurable experiences they've had

    behavioral-teach social techniques like role playing, exposure techniques or homework assignments as tools
  15. describe schizotypal PD
    • display a range of interpersonal problems marked with extreme discomfort in close relationships. odd pattern in thinking and perception, and behaviorally eccentric. 
    • ex. very eccentric beliefs like having control over people with extrasensory abilities. very flat personalities and hard time being focused
  16. causes of schizotypal PD
    • -often linked to family conflicts and psychological defects in parents 
    • -they have a hard time shutting out one stimulus and focusing on another (backward masking)
    • -high neurotransmission of dopamine, enlarged brain ventricles, smaller temporal lobes, loss of gray matter 
    • -most have had major depressive disorder at some point
  17. goal and treatments for schizotypal PD
    goal: help them reconnect with the world and recognize their limits of thinking and powers 

    -increase positive social contacts, ease loneliness, reduce overstimulation, and help them be more aware of personal feelings

    -help them evaluate their thoughts and ignore inappropriate ones 

    -low doses of meds help
  18. what PD in dramatic cluster persistently disregards and violates the rights of others 
    2 kinds in the cluster 

    how old must they be to be diagnosed
    • antisocial PD
    • -psychopaths and sociopaths

    18 to be diagnosed
  19. traits of person with antisocial disorder
    • -cant work consistently at a job 
    • -poor financial responsibility
    • -irritable, aggressive, quick to start fights 
    • -recklessness
    • -self centered 
    • -knack for gaining personal benefit at the expense of others
  20. describe the causes of antisocial PD
    -absence of love from parents leading to general lack of basic trust 

    • behavioral
    • -can be learned from modeling, many parents have this disorder 
    • -their bad behaviors are unintentionally rewarded ex. act out, parents give in to restore peace 

    • cognitive
    • -they trivialize the importance of other people's needs
    • -genuine difficulty recognizing other people's views or feelings

    • biological
    • -lower serotonin activity than others 
    • -dysfunction in frontal lobes

    • -they tend to lack anxiety 
    • -they need more arousal and thrill
  21. treatments for antisocial PD
    they are usually uneffective and forced 

    -cognitive therapists try to get them to think about moral issues and the needs of others
  22. characteristics of those with borderline PD
    • -great instability!!!
    • -major shifts in mood, unstable self image, and impulsivity 
    • -makes their relationships unstable as well 
    • -prone to anger, aggression, and violence 

    • -often intentionally hurt themselves, delinquent activity, unsafe sex, substance abuse, unsafe driving, etc
    • -often form intense, conflict-ridden relationships in where the other person doesn't share the same feelings. they idealize the other person's qualities and abilities after a brief encounter. they violate boundaries. think dichotomous (black and white). they quickly feel rejected and become furious when their expectations aren't met; yet remain attached. 
    • -recurrent fear of abandonment and make frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined separations. sometimes carry out self-destructive acts to prevent partner from leaving. 
    • -dramatic identity shifts: unstable goals, decisions, friends, etc
    • -detachement from their own thoughts or bodies

    5.9% of population
  23. cause of borderline PD
    • -lack of acceptance from parents in childhood, leading to loss of self-esteem, increased dependence, and inability to cope with separation
    • -parents often neglected or rejected them, verbally abused, or some kind of inappropriate behavior or abuse 

    -often abnormalities in brain 

    -biosocial theory: caused by combination of internal and external forces
  24. treatments of borderline personality disorder
    -psychotherapy leads to some improvement 

    -many therapists refuse to treat them because the process is so emotionally training and challenging 

    • just read 539, its a crap ton of stupidity
    • -drugs help, cuz dez MFers are crazy
  25. characteristics of histrionic PD
    • -extremely emotional 
    • -constantly want to be center of attention 
    • -exaggerated moods and neediness
    • -draw attention by any means; being sick, sexuality, etc
  26. cause of histrionic PD
    -childhood with parents that were cold and controlling, leaving them feeling unloved and abandoned. to defend their fear of loss, they learn to behave dramatically, requiring other people to act protectively 

    -cognitive: they have become less and less interested in the world and become self focused and emotional 

    -social component: society encourages girls to hold onto childhood and be dependent, exaggeration of femininity 

    -more common in latin cultures where overt sexuality is tolerated, and less common in asian cultures where sexualization is discouraged
  27. treatments for histrionic PD
    -more likely than others to seek out therapy on their own 

    -hard to treat because of demands, tantrums and seduction 

    • cognitive
    • -help them change their belief that they are helpless and dependent. help them be more self reliant with inner satisfaction
  28. characteristics of narcissistic PD
    -generally grandiose, need a lot of admiration, feel no empathy towards others

    • 6.2% of population 
    • 75% are men
  29. causes of narcissistic PD
    1. cold, rejecting parents. they are essentially trying to portray how perfect and grand they are in order to defend themselves against feeling rejected, unsatisfied, etc. they try to portray that they dont need warm relationships and are totally self sufficient 

    2. they have been treated too positively. their parents are too admiring and too dotting over them. they end up over valuing their self worth 

    big in western culture because of individualism, materialism, short attention spans, etc
  30. treatments of narcissistic PD
    • -hardest to treat because patient is unwilling to acknowledge weakness, to appreciate the effect of their behavior on others, or to incorporate feedback from others 
    • -they usually seek help because of depression 
    • -psycho dynamic therapists help them work through their basic insecurities and defenses 
    • -cognitive therapists help by identifying self centered thinking and redirecting focus on their opinions of others and how to make their judgments more rational. they try to help them be more empathetic.
Card Set
abn psych exam 3
exam 3