EVOLUTION REVIEW

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  1. NAME TWO SOURCES THAT CREATE VARIATION
    RANDOM MUTATION AND RECOMBINATION CREATE VARIATION!
  2. WHAT IS A GENE POOL?
    A gene pool consists of all genes, including all the different alleles that are present in a population.
  3. DEFINE RELATIVE FREQUENCY
    • The number of times the allele occurs in a gene pool, compared with the number of times other alleles for the same gene occur.
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  4. FILL IN THE BLANKS:
    In genetic terms, evolution is any change in the ________ __________of alleles in a __________________.
    In genetic terms, evolution is any change in the RELATIVE FREQUENCY of alleles in a POPULATION.
  5. HOW OFTEN AN ALLELE APPEARS IN THE GENE POOL IS KNOWN AS _________________ ________________ .
    How often an allele appears in the gene pool is known as RELATIVE FREQUENCY.
  6. FILL IN THE BLANKS.
    Relative frequency is often expressed as a ____________, and it is _____ ______________ to whether an allele is dominant or recessive.
    • Relative frequency is often expressed as a PERCENTAGE, and it is NOT RELATED to whether an allele is dominant or recessive.
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  7. FILL IN THE BLANK CIRCLES.
    The first circle is “Species”
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    • SPECIES
    • POPULATION
    • GENE POOL
    • ALL THE VARIETIES OF TRAITS.
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  8. DEFINE MUTATION
    Any change in a sequence of DNA.
  9. Most heritable differences are due to gene shuffling.
    NAME TWO OF THEM.
    1. Crossing-over increases the number of genotypes that can appear in offspring. 

    2. Sexual Reproduction produces different phenotypes, but it does not change the relative frequency of alleles in a population.
  10. DEFINE HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURE
    • Similar structure and position, but different function.
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  11. HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES ARE EVIDENCE OF WHAT?
    COMMON ANCESTOR
  12. HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES ARE AN EXAMPLE OF WHAT TYPE OF EVOLUTION?
    • DIVERGENT.
    • THEY HAVE A COMMON ANCESTOR.
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  13. DEFINE DIVERGENT EVOLUTION.
    NAME TWO POINTS

    • 1. THEY COME FROM THE SAME SOURCE.  
    • 2. THE SAME DEVELOPMENT IN EMBRYO.
    • EVIDENCE: HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES.
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  14. DEFINE ANALOGOUS STRUCTURE
    • OUTSIDE:
    • SAME FUNCTION

    • INSIDE:
    • DIFFERENT ORIGIN
    • DIFFERENT STRUCTURE
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  15. TRUE OR FALSE?
    ANALOGOUS STRUCTURES SHOW EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPS.
    • FALSE.
    • THEY SHOW NO EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIP.
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  16. ANALOGOUS STRUCTURES ARE EVIDENCE OF WHAT TYPE OF EVOLUTION?
    • CONVERGENT.
    • THEY DO NOT HAVE A COMMON ANCESTOR.

    THEY ADAPTED TO THEIR SPECIFIC ENVIORMENT IN THE SAME WAYS.
  17. NAME THE TWO PROCESSES, OR WAYS, WHICH ORGANISMS EVOLVE.

    HINT: THINK HOMOLOGOUS AND ANALOGOUS STRUCTURES
    DIVERGENT AND COVERGENT

    DIVERGENT: HOMOLOGOUS. SIMILAR STUCTURES, DIFFERENT FUNCTION. COMMON ANCESTOR 

    • COVERGENT: ANALOGOUS. SIMILAR FUNCTION, DIFFERENT STRUCTURE.
    • NO COMMON ANCESTOR.
  18. DEFINE VESTIGIAL STRUCTURES
    ves·tig·i·al

    veˈstij(ē)əl
    STRUCTURES THAT SERVE NO CURRENT PURPOSE, BUT WERE USEFUL TO ANCESTORS.

    • EXAMPLE: WHALE PELVIC BONE
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  19. NAME A VESTIGIAL NAME A VESTIGIAL STRUCTURE IN THE HUMAN BODY.
    ves·tig·i·al
    veˈstij(ē)əl
    • WISDOM TEETH
    • APPENDIX
    • COCCYX (TAIL BONE)

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  20. EXPLAIN HOW EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT IS PROOF OF EVOLUTION.
    • DEVELOPING EMBRYOS OF DIFFERENT ORGANISMS HAVE THE SAME FEATURES, DUE TO COMMON ORIGINS.
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  21. WHICH ONE IS NOT A HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURE?
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    THE OCTOPUS.

    THE HUMAN AND LIZZARD HAVE THE SAME INTERNAL STRUCTURES
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  27. WHAT IS A PHYLOGENY?
    • A CHART, WHICH SHOWS PATH OF EVOLUTION AND THE RELATEDNESS OF SPECIES.
    • THINK CLADOGRAMS.
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  29. DEFINE CLADE
    A group of two or more taxa that includes all and only the descendants of a particular ancestor.
  30. DEFINE NODE
    Denotes other common ancestors and specification.
  31. DEFINE OUTGROUP
    Organism with ancestral characteristics shared by all taxa, link organisms together.
  32. DEFINE TAXA
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  33. DEFINE ROOT
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  34. THE EVOLUTIONARY PROCESS BY WHICH REPRODUCTIVELY ISOLATED BIOLOGICAL POPULATIONS EVOLVE  TO BECOME DISTINCT SPECIES IS KNOWN AS WHAT?
    • SPECIATION
    • THINK ABOUT THE BIRD BEAK LAB.
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    SPECIATION: THE EVOLUTIONARY PROCESS BY WHICH REPRODUCTIVELY ISOLATED BIOLOGICAL POPULATIONS EVOLVE TO BECOME DISTINCT SPECIES.  

    GO FURTHER: EXPLAIN THE FOUR SLIDES.
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  37. TRUE OR FALSE?
    A CLADE MAY INCLUDE THOUSANDS OF SPECIES OR JUST A FEW?
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  43. TRUE OR FALSE?
    Evolution produces a pattern of relationships among lineages that are tree-like, not ladder-like.
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  44. TRUE OR FALSE?
    Just because we tend to read phylogenies from left to right, there is no correlation with level of "advancement."
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EVOLUTION REVIEW
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EVOLUTION REVIEW
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