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What are the 2 categories of photodermatitis?
- UV-A- spectrum associated with photosensitization
- UV-B- spectrum associated with sunburn
Describe the process of photosensitization.
not direct- photodynamic compounds deposited in skin, absorb light, and produce free radicals, which cause damage to the skin and skin necrosis
Where does photosensitization occur?
lightly pigmented or non-pigmented areas of skin
What are the different types of photosensitization? (4)
- Type I: ingestion of photodynamic compounds
- Type II: congenital errors in metabolism of pigments
- Type III: hepatogenous- liver no longer conjugates phylloerythrin
- Type IV: idiopathic
How is type III photosensitization diagnosed? (3)
GGT (Cholestasis), SDH (direct cellular damage), AST/SGOT
Porphyria is a ________ photosensitization; it is...
type II; genetic defect in hemoglobin production due to a deficiency in uroporphyrinogen III cosynthetase, leading to accumulation of photodyanmic substances in tissues (skin, teeth, bones, urine)
What causes contact photosensitivity?
contact with certain compounds, plants, or sap can result in a localized photosensivity
What is the treatment for photosensitization? (4)
remove from sunlight, remove underlying cause, steroid if contact photosensitivity, topical zinc
What is the prognosis for photosensitization?
- primary- good
- hepatogenous- poor
What is soremouth?
- orf, ovine contagious pustular dermatitis, contagious ecthyma- poxvirus
- sheet, goats, rabbits, humans
How is orf transmitted? (3)
direct animal to animal contact, fomites, environment (can survive for years off host- less in direct sunlight)
Describe clinical disease associated with orf. (5)
short incubation, young animals, immunity after infection, proliferative lesions around mouth/ muzzle (teats on nursing ewes), gone in 2-3 weeks
What lesions are present with orf?
papule--> vesicle--> pustule--> scab
What is the treatment and prevention for orf?
- palliative treatment only, nutritional support
- vaccine: decide when they get infected
What is unique about atypical soremouth?
lesions do not regress (unlike typical, in which lesions are gone in 2-3 weeks)
What is the cause of papillomatosis? In what animals does it occur?
- bovine papilloma virus (strain determines area of body effected)
- mostly young animals- cattle predisposed
Describe the treatment of papillomatosis.
- cosmetic problem unless affecting the penis
- resection is curative
What are the most common strains of BPV?
1&2 usually on face/ neck
What is unique about BPV-4?
association b/w BPV-4 and ingestion of bracken fern can lad to the malignant transformation of the papilloma--> bladder tumors
What is unique about BPV-5-10?
papillomas on teats- must be removed
What causes ulcerative dermatosis? Describe the clinical course.
- ulcerative lesions, duration is 2-8 weeks, supportive care
What is the cause of ulcerative mammilitis? What are signs of disease?
- BHV-2 and 4
- sudden onset teat swelling and tenderness, vesicles--> ulcers
- course lasts from 3-10 weeks
How is ulcerative mammilitis managed? (3)
ID affected cattle, segregate and milk last, recrudescence will occur
Vesicular stomatitis in cattle is _________ and looks similar to __________.
reportable; herpes mammilitis
All vesicular diseases in swine are ______________.
What are the signs and treatment of Erysipelas in swine?
- Signs: fever, arthritis, diamond skin lesions, death
- Txt: beta-lactams, anti-inflammatories
What causes greasy pig disease? What is the result?
Staph hyicus--> produces exfoliative toxin
What are the signs and treatment of greasy pig disease?
- Signs: exudative skin, crusts
- Txt: beta-lactams, eryhtromycin