Language 4 (PBS5)

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  1. Study: people take note of syntactic structure and extract them for use.
    • Bock 1986
    • Syntactic priming
    • Prepositional or double object sentence
    • Participants asked to describe pics
    • More likely to use syntactic structure they just heard to describe pic
  2. 4 Major theories of sentence parsing?
    • Garden-path model
    • Constraint-based models
    • Unrestricted race-model
    • 'Good-enough' representations model
  3. 6 sentence parsing cues?
    • Structural syntactic principles
    • Statistical regularities
    • Grammatical categories
    • Prosodic cues
    • Semantic information
    • Word knowledge
  4. Structural syntactic cues.
    • Frazer
    • later closure and minimal attachment
    • accommodates for short term memory (limited number of words) by accommodating incoming words iwth partially formed syntactics structures
  5. Statistical regularities
    • Expectations about word order
    • English - canonical, Subject-Verb-Object sequence
    • Slobin experiment - faster with active sentences because they are canonical
  6. Grammatical categories
    • esp for articles (a, the), prepositions (on, to) and pronouns (me, you)
    • 'John hits the girl with the book' - can predict that the 'the' will be followed by a noun
  7. Prosodic cues
    • Prosody - the pattern of stress/intonation etc
    • Beach experiment
    • the word 'argue' can have different prosody depending on whether it is in a direct object sentence or complement sentence
    • Participants heard fragment and asked to complete sentence
    • when they heard prosody of DO sentences, they completed it with DO sentence
    • for both small and long fragments - showing use of prosodic cues is fast
  8. Semantic information
    • whether word was inanimate or animate
    • Trustwell experiment
    • reading time slower for sentence 'the witness examined by the lawyer...' than 'the evidence examined by the lawyer'
    • because both animate nouns can be subject of the verb 'examined'
  9. World knowledge
    • Effect of world knowledge violation in sentences is rapid and parallel to semantic violations¬†
    • Hagort - presented Dutch participants with 3 different sentences
    • 1 was correct about Dutch trains; 1 was world knowledge violation, 1 was semantic violation
    • Both WK and semantic violation created ERP at about 400ms (showing this is very fast effect on sentence processing)
  10. Talk to me about neurobiology of syntax
    • Involvement of fronto-temporal regions
    • ESP left hemisphere fronto-temporal connections
    • Frederici: dorsal route = complex syntax; ventral route = simple syntax
    • Rilling: LH fronto-temporal connections weak in non-human primates compared to humans
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319170
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Language 4 (PBS5)
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