1. unpacking the centre
    the centre is “normal” and or privileged, outside of it is known as abnormal
  2. intersectionality
    an analytic perspective that accounts for how factors such as race, gender, class, sexuality, dis/ability, and citizenship intersect, penetrate, and inform one another so that they become mutually constitutive and act together
  3. hegemony
    Antonio Gramsci describes it as "intellectual and moral leadership"
  4. normalization
    how a certain version of things takes on the appeal as standard, true, or "normative"
  5. representation
    traditional way of thinking about representation is a representation of something that has already happened
  6. social construction of sex
    an approach that distinguishing between sex and gender, and saying that “feminine” is not simply something you are born as, but rather something shaped by the culture around you
  7. intersex
    bodies that cannot easily be constructed as male or female
  8. heteropatriarchy
    dominance of heterosexual males in society
  9. queer studies
    discipline to examin social construction, manifestation, resistance to dominant norms (power relations) about sexuality, gender identity
  10. queer politics
    focuses on fluidity and movement of sexuality, desire, practices etc
  11. heteronormativity
    a world view that heterosexuality is normal and or preferred sexual orientation
  12. homonormativity
    people who identify as queer but do not contest dominant heteronormative assumptions and institutions such as acceptable sexual behaviour monogamy), procreation and binary gender roles
  13. representations of "obesity"
    unattractive, downwardly mobile, not physically or emotionally healthy, not athletic, lacking in body and self-control
  14. fat studies
    • Question how ideas about body norms are produced and how those ideas are detrimental to people (e.g. body image)
    • -Weight as a form of social control
    • -Understand fat as a descriptor (like height)
  15. race
    an arbitrary and socially constructed classification of persons on the basis of real or imagined physical characteristics
  16. racialization
    a process through which "race" is attributed to a population of people, facilitating the practice of racism against them
  17. racism
    discrimination accorded to a group of people differentiated and evaluated on the basis of their alleged or real physical or social qualities
  18. colorism
    prejudice or discrimination against individuals with a dark skin tone
  19. white supremacy
    the belief that white people are superior to those of all other races, especially the black race
  20. cultural genocide
    the intentional and systematic destruction of people on the basis of their race, ethnicity, religion, or national origin, accomplished through the mass extinguishment of their actual physical beings
  21. what are the benefits of multiculturalism?
    • Promotes cultural exchange
    • Integration
    • Rates of naturalization in Canada = high
    • Intermarriage – high
    • Language “proficiency” – high

    • Voter turnout – high
    • Pillay: MC “removes barriers to participation in Canadian life, thereby promoting integration” p. 70
  22. what are some critiques of multiculturalism?
    • 1. focus on 2 protagonists
    • 2. MC policy development was NOT a human rights/ equity issue
    • 3. Despite MC, there is continued use of references to colour/difference in official politices
    • 4. MC fixes identities
    • 5.MC Act does not address the claims made by racialized communities/immigrants
    • 6. Prevents coalitions
    • 7.MC as a "neoliberal mode of belonging"
  23. Nation/Nationalism
    A ‘nation’ is a collection of people that have come to believe that they have been shaped by a common past and are destined to share a common future. That belief is usually nurtured by a common language and a sense of otherness from groups around them. Nationalism is a commitment to fostering those beliefs and promoting policies which permit the nation to control its own destiny
  24. theories of power
    • modernist/structuralist
    • postmodernist/poststructuralist
    • - power/knowledge 
    • - discourse
    • - sovereign power
    • - disciplinary power 
    • - biopower 
    • - governmental power
  25. modernist
    enlightenment period - idea that people could use human reason to shape history
  26. structuralist
    the belief that there are underlying, unifying structures, or rules, shaping social life and communication, and that these structures can be studied through objective scientific method
  27. postmodernist
    rejecting the enlightenment belief that, through human reason and research, humanity was on the road of process
  28. poststructuralist
    a postmodern approach, as practised in the social sciences
  29. discourse
    organized systems of knowledge that make possible what can be spoken, about and how one can speak about it
  30. power/knowledge
    The exercise of power perpetually creates knowledge and, conversely, knowledge constantly induces effects of power
  31. sovereign power
    Can be best described as power over groups and individuals, and it is generally negative and prohibitive
  32. disciplinary power
    directed toward the examination and subjection of bodies through new knowledge and through new techniques for administering, in an increasingly detailed manner, to bodies and population
  33. biopower (has two main components)
    Being directed toward the administration of populations people

    Toward the penetration of individual bodies, so that the individual’s notion of self was formulated in particular ways
  34. governmental power
    occurring when we are no longer aware of power’s effects, because we have already embraced it, and reproduce it in relation tour selves and to others – known as governmentality
  35. compulsory able-bodiedness
    is a system that disciplines bodies in a society by forcing them to conform to a standard that is at once invisible and disembodied
  36. heteronormative epiphanies
    the production and reproduction, at the end of the twentieth century, of more flexible bodies -gay bodies that no longer mark absolute deviance, heterosexual bodies that are newly on display. The out heterosexual works alongside gay men and lesbians; the more flexible heterosexual body tolerates a certain amount of queerness
  37. status
    come through formal education or training, or from more tradition means like family background
  38. stratification
    draws attention to different levels of class and status markers
  39. citizenship
    a legally recognized subject or national of a state or commonwealth, either native or naturalized
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