1. ideograph method
    • Personality techniques that focuses on the individual
    • Case studies
    • Interviews
    • Naturalistic observations (observing something in natural environment)
  2. Nomothetic Method
    • focus on group
    • tests, surveys
  3. Freud and the Victorian era
    • The Victorian Era was known for self-control of physical drives
    • Freud treating patients in this era (who suffered from mental disorders) led him to believe that their disorders started  from sexual conflicts hidden from awareness
  4. three levels of mind
    • conscious
    • preconcious
    • unconscious
  5. Conscious
    what we are aware of at the particular moment
  6. Preconscious
    thoughts, memories, feelings and images that we can easily remember
  7. Unconscious (subconscious)
    • inaccessible to our conscious mind, the largest part of the mind, deals with wishes, impulses, memories or feelings
    • Threatening thoughts/ feelings can be repressed into the unconscious
  8. Freud's Personality Systems
    • The id
    • The ego
    • The superego
  9. the id
    • evil
    • source of personalities desires
    • demands instant gratification
    • instinct to avoid pain and obtain pleasure
    • irrational and self centered
  10. the ego
    • balance
    • obeys reality principle ( takes care of needs as soon as appropriate)
    • represents reality and reason
    • understands other people have needs and desires and being impulsive can hurt others
  11. the superego
    • angel
    • conscience ( internalization of punishment and warning)
    • rewards us and makes us feel proud
  12. In a healthy person which is strongest
    ego so it can satisfy needs of id and not upset the superego and still take reality of situation into consideration
  13. ego and defenses
    ego has difficulty satisfying  the id and superego so the ego gets anxiety and takes extreme measures to relieve pressure (defense mechanisms)
  14. Freud believed that people are driven by two conflicting central desires
    the life drive/ instinct (Libido/ Eros) and the death drive/ instinct (Thanatos)
  15. Life Instincts (Eros)
    • aka sex instincts
    • basic survival pleasure and reproduction
    • Also includes thirst, hunger, and pain avoidance.
    • libido
  16. Death Instincts (Thanatos)
    • the goal of life is death
    • people unconsciously want to die but its counteracted by life instincts
    • self destructive behavior is expression of death instinct
    • can cause aggression and violence
  17. First five years of life are critical for formation
    • personality
    • fixation can occur
    • To prevent fixation, parents need to be sensitive to a young child's needs in each stage without over indulging them
  18. oral stage
    • 0-1 years old
    • mouth - like to receive pleasure form mouth
    • conflict - weaning from bottle
    • if too traumatic it leads to eating drinking, nail biting, smoking
  19. anal stage
    • 1-3 yrs
    • zone - bowel/ bladder
    • child gets pleasure from pooping
    • conflict- toilet training
    • strict rules about toilet training causes child to be constipated and be compulsive, stubborn, orderliness
    • leniency can lead to expelling feces all the time and causes disorderliness, messiness, tantrums.
    • overly praised= creative and productive
  20. phallic stage
    • 3-5 yrs
    • zone -genitals
    • child learns differcnces between sexes
    • Oedipus complex
  21. Oedipus/ Electra complex
    • carl jung
    • conflict between child's sexual desire for their parent of the opposite sex and their fear of punishment from the same sex parent
    • castration anxiety - son afraid his father will remove his penis
    • girl has penis envy and blames her mom for not having one
  22. fixation in phallic stage
    • reckless
    • resolute
    • gay
  23. latent stage
    • 6-12
    • zone - sexual feelings inactive
    • pleasure in accomplishments
    • puberty
    • develop ego
  24. genital stage
    • puberty - death
    • zone - maturing sexual interests
    • sexual attraction occurs
    • individual should be well balanced warm and caring
Card Set
test notes 93-94