Anatomy thoracic limb

  1. Describe the clavicle in the dog and cat
    • cat: separate, nonarticular bone
    • Dog: rudimentary or absent, embedded in brachiocephalicus muscle
  2. what does the spine of the scaula divide
    lateral scapula into infraspinous and supraspinous fossae
  3. what is the acromion
    end of the spine of scapula
  4. what is the caudal projection of the acromionfound in the cat
    suprahamate process
  5. what is the glenoid fossa/cavity and its function
    shallow cavity of the scapula articulating with the humerus to form the shoulder joint
  6. what is the supraglenoid tubercle and what is its function
    crfanial process near the glenoid cavity for the attachment of the biceps brachii muscle
  7. what and where is the greater tubercle
    projection located craniolateral to the head of the humerus - point of the shoulder
  8. what is the intertubercular(bicipital) groove
    the sulcus between the greater and lesser humeral tubercles for the biceps brachii tendo
  9. what is the condyle of the humerus
    how many are there per humeri
    • entire distal end of the humerus
    • one
  10. what arises from the epicondyles of the humerus
    • lateral(extensor) epicondyle: extensors of forearm
    • Medial(flexor) epicondyle: flexors
  11. what foramen is found in canine and feline humeri, and what passes through them
    • Dog: supratrochlear foramen - nothing
    • Cat: supracondylar foramen - median nerve and brachial vessels
  12. what and where id the function of the olecranon/olecranon tuberosity? what is a common name for it
    serves as a lever arm for the extensor muscle of the elbow. point of elbow
  13. name the depression of the ulna that articulates with the humerus and its proximal and distal ends
    • trochlear notch (semilunar notch)
    • Proximal end = anconeal process
    • Distal ends = medial and lateral coronoid processes
  14. what and where is the styloid process of the ulna
    distal end of ulna, lateral side
  15. list the parts of the manus from proximal to distal
    • carpus: carpal bones
    • metacarpus: metacarpal bones
    • digits: proximal, middle, and distal phalanges and associated sesamoid bones
  16. what does the term carpus designate
    carpal bones and compund joint formed by these bones or the region between the forarm and the metacarpus
  17. name the bones of the carpus and indicate where they are in each row
    • proximal row form medial to lateral: radial, ulnar and accessory carpal bones
    • distal row: numbered from 1-4 from medial to lateral
  18. which carpal bone is located laterally and palmarily and is considered a landmark
    accessory carpal bone
  19. list the bones of each digit and their location
    • proximal middle and distal phalanges(not middle for dew claw),
    • 2 proximal sesamoid bones(1 for dew claw) on palmar side of metacarpophalangeal joints,
    • 1 dorsal sesamoid bone for digit 1-4
  20. what is the fingernail-like structure covering th ungual process
    horny claw
  21. what is the shelf of the distal phalanx covering the root of the claw
    ungual crest
  22. what is the digit (P1, P3, 1 proximal sesamoid)+MtC1 that doesn't reach the ground
    dew claw
  23. what is the configuration of the shoulder (scapulohumeral, humeral) joint
    ball and socket joint (spheroidal)
  24. what type of motion is allowed by the shoulder joint
    all movements (universal) but mainly flexion and extension
  25. what protects the biceps tendon in the intertubercular groove
    extension of the shoulder joint capsule (connected) acting as a tendon sheath
  26. what stabilizes the shoulder joint
    no true collateral ligaments, but infraspinatus tendon laterally and subscapularis tendon medially help stabilize
  27. what bones make up the elbow (cubital) joint
    humeral condyle, trochlear notch of ulna, head of radius
  28. what type of joint is the elbow/cubital joint, and what action is allowed
    • ginglymua or hinge joint
    • also compound, flexion and extension
  29. what powerful ligaments bind sides of all the joints of the limb except the shoulder
    how does this effect their movement
    • lateral and medial collateral ligaments
    • limits to mainly flexion and extension
  30. what type of joint is the carpus
    what movement does it allow
    • compound/composite hinge joint
    • flexion and extension (also gliding and rotation)
  31. list the joints of the carpus and the movement each allows
    • antebrachiocarpal joint: most movement (flexion and extension)
    • middle carpal joint
    • less but considerable extensions and flexion
    • carpometacarpal joint:very little, mainly gliding,
    • intercarpal joints: gliding
  32. list the boundaries of the carpal canal
    carpal bones(covered by palmar carpal fibrocartilage) accessory carpal bone and flexor retinaculum (transverse carpal ligament)
  33. list the joints of the digitd (the bones they are between)
    • Metacarpophalangeal (MP) joints: metacarpal bone, proximal phalanx
    • proximal interdigital (PIP) (P1 and P2)
    • distal interdigital (DIP or "claw") joint (P2 and P3)
  34. what bones are located on the palmar side of the metacarpophalangeal joints
    • 2 palmar sesamoids (main digits 2-5)
    • 1 for dew claw
  35. what ligament extends from proximal P2 to dorsal P3
    • dorsal elastic lig
    • unique to carnivores
  36. what flexor muscles effect the interphalangeal joints
    • Prox IP: DDF and SDF
    • Distal IP: DDF only
  37. what is the function of the elastic dorsal ligament of the cat's digits
    oppose DDF, keeping claw retracted ("sheathing the claw")
  38. what local thickening of the deep fascia holds tendons in place
  39. in which layer are the cutaneous muscles located
    in the superficial fasica
  40. what is the function of the cutaneous muscle
    twitch skin,
  41. what muscle connects the thoracic limb to the head, neck and trunk
    extrinsic muscle of the thoracic limb
  42. name five of the eight extrinsic muscles of the thoracic limb
    trapezius, omotransversarius, brachiolcephalicus, superficial and deep pectoral, latissimus forsi, serratus ventralis and rhomboideus
  43. what extrinsic muscle supports the weight of the trunk
    serratus ventralis - forms a sling for the trunk
  44. what muscles originate and insert on the bones of the thoracic limb
    intrinsic muscles of the limb
  45. what muscles replace collateral ligaments for the shoulder joint
    subscapular, infraspinatus, supraspinatus, biceps brahii muscle
  46. what nerve innervates the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscle
    suprascapular nerve
  47. what is the common insertion of all four heads of the triceps brachii muscle
  48. where does the biceps brachii muscle originate
    supraglenoid tuberosity
  49. what nerve innervates the triceps and other extensors of the elbow, carpus and digits
    radial nerve
  50. how are the forearm musceles grouped
    • craniolateral antebrachial muscles = extensors of digits and carpus
    • caudal antebrachial muscles = flexors of digits and carpus
  51. where do most of the extensors of the digits/carpus arise
    on or near lateral (extensor) epicondyle
  52. what muscles arise/originate from the medial(flexor) epicondyle of humerus
    caudal antebrachial (flexor) muscles
  53. what nerve innervates the extensors of the digits and carpus
    what innervates the caudal antebrachila muscles (flexor)
    • radial nerve
    • meian and ulnar
  54. where does the superficail digit flexor (SDF) and DDF insert
    what is the clinical significance of this
    • SDF = middle phalanges
    • DDF = distal phalanges
    • DDF affects the distal interphalangeal joint, SDF doesn't
  55. where are most of the vessels and nerves of the arm and why
    medial side of arm, protection
  56. list the main arteries to the forelimb and their location
    • subclavian a.- medial to first rib
    • axillary a.- in axilla
    • subscapular a- along caudal scapula
    • brachia a- in arm
    • common interosseous a.- last brach of brachial
    • median (in forearm)
    • digital a. in paw
  57. what are the locations of the cephalic and accessory cephalic veins of the manus; where do they join and continue as the cephalic vein
    cephalic palmar paw, accessory cephalicdorsal paw, meet above carpus to travel cranial on the forearm
  58. can the lymph nodes of the thoracic limb be palpated
    • axillary no
    • accessory can if present
    • superficial cervical yes
  59. what 2 muscles does the suprascapular nerve innervate
    crosses neck of scapula to the supraspinatus and infrspinatus muscle
  60. what innervates the cutaneous trunci muscle
    lateral thoracic nerve
  61. what nerve innervates the flexor of the elbow and thus is necessary for weight bearing
    radial nerve
  62. what nerves does SS-MAR-MU stand for and from what areas of the brachial plexus do they rise
    • SS: Crainal(supraspinatus, subscapularis)
    • MAR: middle(musculocutaneous, axillary)
    • MU: caudal (medial, ulnar)
  63. what nerves innervate the extensors and flaxors of the forepaw
    • extensor: radial nerve
    • flexsor:median & ulnar nerves
  64. where does the radial nerve become superficial and thus in danger of damage
    laterally under the tricps brachii muscle
  65. what are 2 cutaneous areas of the forepaw
    • drosal paw: radial nerve
    • Abaxial 5th (lateral)digit: ulnar nerve
  66. what normal structures can be mistaken for lytic (dissolved) areas of the cortex
    nutrient foramina
  67. what should be done if questions arise from a radiograph of a limb
    shoot comparison films of opposite limb
  68. the different views_____ different sides of the bones
  69. what does the lateral view highlight
    cranial and caudal or dorsal and palmar plantar surfaces of bones
  70. what are radiographic landmarks for the lateral side of the limb
    spine of scapula, greater tubercle(humerus), distal ulna, accessory carpal bone
  71. what are radiographic landmarks for the medial side of the thoracic limb
    radial carpal bone, dew claw
  72. what are caudal/palmar landmarks of the forelimb
    head of humerus, olecranon, accessory carpal
  73. what does the craniocaudal or dorsaopalmar view highlight
    medial and lateral structures of the limb
  74. name two normal structures that can be mistaken for fractures in the forearm
    ancroneal process of ulna, sesamoid. bones of digits or laeral collateral ligament of elbow: accessory ossicle of caudal scapula
  75. on what side of the limb is the accessory carpal bone
    lateral and palmar
  76. what bone may be mistaken for a chip fracture of the carpus
    sesamoid in tendon of oblique carpal extensor
  77. what is an pathological osseous (bony) outgrowth seen radiographically
    osteophyte/enthesiophyte/bone spur
  78. what is an increase in the density of the bone
  79. what is destruction of a bone, seen as reduced density (blacker)
  80. what is luxation or a dislocation
    complete loss of contact between articular surfaces of a joint
  81. define a subluxation
    partial loss of contact between articular surfaces of a joint
  82. what is osteochondrosis (OC)
    defect in endochondral ossification: deeper layer of articular cartilage die
  83. do you look for radiographic changes in the cartilage in OC
    no can't see, check subchondral bone
  84. list 2 of 4 common sites of OC
    • shoulder
    • medial humeral condyle
    • medial and lateral femoral condyle
    • proximal medial trochlea
  85. what is the #1 site for osteochondrosis in the dog
    describe OCD apperance compared to nromal
    • caudal aspect of the head of humerus
    • normal: smooth and round, with no flattening
    • OCD: flattening or cratering with subchondral bone sclerosis(thickening)+- joint mouse
  86. what can the cat's clavicle be mistaken for in a lateral radiograph
    bone in the esophagus
  87. what can premature closure of either proximal or distal radial physis cause
    subluxation of the humeral-radial joint
  88. where is osteochondrosis of the elbow located
    medial condyle of the humerus
  89. what is ununited anconeal process
    failure of anconeal process to unite with ulna after 6 months of age
  90. what is fragmented medial coronoid process
    improper development and fragmentation of cartilaginous precursor
  91. how are the medial and lateral epicondyles of the humerus differentiated in a lateral radiograph
    medial "squared" and extend further caudally than rounded lateral
  92. what is the location of most fractures of the humerus
  93. what hinders retration of the median nerve and brachial artery during surgery in the cat
    they pass through the supracondylar foramen
  94. what can cause premature closure of a growth plate
    injury to physis (growth plate)
  95. what happens if there is premature closure of the distal ulnar physis
    cranial and medial curvature of the radious, carpal valgus and subluxation of elbow
  96. what type of fractures often occur in the radius and ulna
  97. how are simple fracture of the ulna and radius often treated
    with external casts
  98. how are olecranon fractures treated and why
    requires tension band appliance (2 IM pins and figure eight wire) to conuteract pull of tricps brachii muscle
  99. what is the first thing you should think about when treating trochlear notch fractures
    need exact anatomical reduction because articular
  100. what is a Monteggia fracture
    fracture of the proximal 1/3 of the ulna with redail head luxation
  101. what is the quick that bleeds if a horny claw is cut to short
    artery in the dermis over ungual process
  102. how is cutting the quick prevented when trimming pigments and unpigemnted claws
    • unpigmented: don't cut into visible pink cone
    • pigmented: shave off layers until white area reached (just distal to quick) then use 1st to judg the rest
  103. what must be removed in a declaw/onychetomy to prevent regrowth
    ungual crest
  104. what 2 methods of dewclawing ensure removal of the ungual crest
    remove all to P3, or all (includinf ungual crest) but the base/flexor process of P3
  105. hos is a declaw operation performed basically
    guillotine nail clipper: blade in dorsal- distal interphalangeal joint and other distal to digital pad
  106. what is a sequestrum
    piece of dead bone
  107. when is it best to remove dewclaws in dogs
    in neonate
  108. briefly describe how a dewclaw is removed in a neonate
    prep, cut dewclaw from metatarsal bones, single absorbable suture
  109. what can be mistaken for a chip fracture in a carpal radiograph
    sesamoid bone of the oblique carpal extensor tendon
  110. what, if damage, causes luxation or subluxation of the carpal joint
    rupture of the palmar carpal ligament and the joint capsule
  111. what is the term for extra digits, common in cats
  112. what is an unhealed fracture, having all strucutres of a synovial joint
    flase joint
  113. what is an articular separation called
    luxation, subluxation or dislocation
  114. what is the most common site of osteochonrosis
    shoulder- head of humerus
  115. with what does the shoulder joint communicate in the canine
    intertubercular (bicipital) bursa
  116. what helps prevent luxation of the shoulder
    thickenings of joint capsule (glenohumeral ligaments) and adjacent muscles
  117. why is lateral luxation more likely in the dog's elbow
    lateral epicondyle is smaller than medial
  118. define ununited anconeal process
    failure of anconeal process to unite with ulna after 6 months of age
  119. when does the anconeal process unite in German shephards
    by 6 months
  120. what can fragmented medial coronoid process cause
    degeneration of elbow joint
  121. what muscle is incised to open the elbow joint laterally
  122. where are subcutaneous injections made
    through skin into superficial fascia
  123. how can pus move from one area to another
    along fascial planes
  124. how can a neck infection spread to the thorax
    migrate down fascial planes to the thorax
  125. how are fascial planes used in surgery
    used as cleavage planes to reach deep structures relatively free of blood
  126. how do you determine unilateral atrophy of shoulder muscles
    compare muscles on both side by palpation
  127. at what level is it easier to amputate the forlimb and why
    scapular removal is faster and easier than shoulder disarticulation
  128. why is leaving the scapula when amputating the forlimb cosmetically unacceptable in short haired breeds
    atrophy = unsightly bony prominences
  129. how do dogs do on three limbs
    most adapt well, larger the animal the harder
  130. what muscles must be transected to remove the entire forelimb including the scapula
    all the extrinsic muscles of the forleimb
  131. what is a tenotomy
    transceting a tendon
  132. what is the easiest vein to use for venipuncture
    cephalic vein
  133. where is venipuncture usually performed on the cephalic vein
    in the forarm above the carpus; start distally so that if you "flub" you can move up the arm
  134. to puncture the external juular vein, first fo through the ____ parallel to the vien and then angle and insert the needle gently into the vein
    skin, because it moves freely
  135. why can't a tourniquet be effectively used in the middle of the antirachium
    caudal interosseous is protected from occlusion by deep position between bones
  136. how is the superficail cervial lymph node palpated in a dog
    retract are and palpate ln. deep to brachiocephalicus and cranial to suprapinatus muscle, just forsal to level of acromion
  137. how is the accessory axillary lymph node palpated if it is present
    lay hand flat on thorax caudal to arm and stoke caudally
  138. shy can a broken neck result in respiratory paralysis
    phrenic nerve to diaphragm arises from cervial and bracial plexuses
Card Set
Anatomy thoracic limb
Q & A thoracic limb