Microbiology Flash Cards Exam 3 Lecture 25

  1. Catabolism:
    breakdown of complex molecules into smaller ones
  2. Anabolism
    reactions that build cells
  3. Gibbs free energy change, ∆G.
    The direction of a reaction can be predicted by a thermodynamic quantity called Gibbs free energy change, ∆G.
  4. ∆G=
    ∆G= ∆H–T∆S
  5. ∆H:
    Change in enthalpy, the heat energy absorbed or released

    ∆H-driven reactions release heat.

    ∆S-driven reactions depend on temperature.
  6. T∆S
    • Product of temperature and entropy change
    • -If ∆G< 0, the process may go forward.
    • -If ∆G> 0, the reaction will go in reverse.
  7. Intrinsic properties of a reaction
    The changes of ΔHand ΔS contributing to ΔG
  8. energy carriers
    Molecules that gain or release small amounts of energy in reversible reactions

    Examples: NADH and ATP
  9. Electron donor:
    reducing agent
  10. Electron acceptor
    an oxidizing agent
  11. Adenosine triphosphate
    contains a base, sugar, and three phosphates
  12. ATP can transfer energy to cell processes in three different ways:
    • 1.Hydrolysis-releasing phosphate (Pi)
    • 2.Hydrolysis-releasing pyrophosphate (PPi)
    • 3.Phosphorylation of an organic molecule
  13. Nicotinamideadenine dinucleotide(NADH)
    • carries two or three times as much energy as ATP.
    • -It also donates and accepts electrons.
    • -NADH is the reduced form.
    • -NAD+is the oxidized form.
  14. Flavine adenine dinucleotide
    • is another related coenzyme that can transfer electrons
    • Unlike NAD+, FAD is reduced by two electronsand two protons
  15. Fermentation
    partial breakdown of organic food without net electron transfer to an inorganic terminal electron acceptor
  16. Respiration:
    complete breakdown of organic molecules with electron transfer to a terminal electron acceptor such as O2
  17. Photoheterotrophy:
    catabolism is conducted with a “boost” from light
Card Set
Microbiology Flash Cards Exam 3 Lecture 25
Flash cards vocab lecture 25