Kins 151 exam 2

  1. Know the detailed bone anatomy of the arm, forearm, and hand
    • Humerus:Lateral Epicondyle, Trochlea, Media Epicondyle, Capitulum
    • Radius: head, Turberosity, radial styloid process
    • Ulna: Olecranon, semilunar notch, coronoid process, radial notch, Turberosity, ulnar styloid process
    • Hand bones: Scaphoid, Lunate, Pisiform, Triquetral, Hamate, Capitate, Trapezoid, Trapezium
    • Metacarpal 1 (thumb), Metacarpal 2,3,4,5
    • Proximal phalange 1,2,3,4,5
    • Middle phalange 2,3,4,5
    • Distal phalange 1,2,3,4,5
  2. Know the muscles of humeral movement and stabilization of the shoulder, but located in the arm; origins, insertions and actions
    • Movements of the Humerus:
    • Adduction/Abduction/Flexion/Extension/Horizontal/Rotation/Circumduction
    • Ball + socket, prone to downward dislocation
    • Muscles Acting on the Humerus for shoulder stabilization (9):

    1. Pec Major- O= Ant. Surface of the sternum and Ant. border of clavicle.   I= Lateral lip of bicipital groove.   A= Flexion, horizontal flexion(adduction), inward rotation, adduction, extension when shoulder is in a flexed position

    2. Coracobrachialis  O= Coracoid Process.   I= Middle medial border of humerus.   A= Horizontal flexion of humerus, slight flexion of humerus. Additional humeral head support counteracting the rotator cuff as a "mast muscle".

    3. Deltoid   O= "U" shape- Ant.- Lateral anterior clavicle. Middle- Lateral acromion process of scapula. Post- Inferior spine of scapula.   I= Deltoid tuberosity of humerus.   A= abduction, ant.flexion, horizontal flexion (adduction), inward rotation. Posterior extension, horizontal extension(abduction), slight outward rotation.

    • 4. Lat. Dorsi   O= T7-15, post. sacrum, ribs 10-12.    I= Bicipital groove.    A= extension, adduction, inward rotation of humerus. 
    • 5. Teres Major   O= Inferior, medial border & inferior angle of scapula.     I= Medial inferior lip of bicipital groove of humerus.    A= Inward rotation, adduction, extension, stabilizer of humerus.
  3. SITS?
    • S.I.T.S.
    • 6. Supraspinatus    O= Supraspinatous foss of scapula.     I= Superior greater tubercle of humerus.    A= Stabilizer, outward rotation, abduction upon isolation with deltoid of humerus
    • 7. Infraspinatus Acts as one with Teres Minor, it's "buddy"   O= Infraspinous fossa of sccapula.   I= Middle greater tubercle of humerus.   A= Stabilization, outward rotation, extension + horizontal extension of humerus.
    • 8. Teres Minor   O= Lat. Border of scapula.   I= Lower gr8er tubercle.    A= Stabilization, outward rotation, extension + horiztonal extension when isolated.
    • 9. Subscapularis   O= Subscapular fossa of scapula.    I= Lesser tubercle of humerus.   A= Stabilization, adduction, inward rotation, ext. of humerus when isolated.
  4. Know the muscles of the Elbow, origins, insertions and actions.
    • Elbow is a hinge joint. Does Flexion + extension. Pivot joint. Rotation of the pivot join is called pronation and supination. Proximal and distal movement.
    • Muscles (8):
    • 1. Bicep Brachii     O= LH- Supraglenoid tubercle. SH- Coracoid process.    I= Bicipital tuberosity of radius.    A= Elbow flexion and supination. Shoulder stabilization, assistor in humeral flexion.
    • 2. Brachialis    O= Distal anterior humerus.    I= Ulnar tuberosity and coronoid process.    A= Eblow flexion
    • 3. Brachioradialis    O= lateral condyle of humerus.    I= Radius at Styloid process.   A= Flexion, pronation from supination, supination from pronation.
    • 4. Pronator Teres    O= Medial Epicondylar Ridge of Humerus.    I= Lateral wrap to lateral radius.    A= Pronation, weak elbow flexion.
    • 5. Pronator Quadratus   Outlaw, deepest muscle, doesnt cross wrist or elbow.   O= Ant. Ulna.   I= Ant. Raius.    A= Pronation
    • 6. Tricep Brachii   O= LH- infraglenoid tubercle. Lat. Head- upper posterior humerus.  Med. head- Lower posterior humerus.    I= Superior crest of olecranon process of ulna.    A= Forearm extension at elbow, long head stabilizes the shoulder joint.
    • 7. Anconeus  O= Posterior lateral condyle of humerus.   I= upper posterior ridge of ulna.   A= initiation of extension, stabilization
    • 8. Supinator   O= Posterior lateral epicondyle of humerus and posterior proximal ulna.   I= Lateral wrap to proximal radius.   Supination! OF COURSEEE
  5. True Elbow Flexor?
    • Brachialis!
    • Great rotary component. Long Origin. Short insertion.
    • O= Distal anterior humerus.    I= Ulnar tuberosity and coronoid process.    A= Eblow flexion
  6. What is the Elbow extensor initiator?
    • Anconeus. its an elbow stabilizer, fan shaped fiber arrangement.
    • O= Posterior lateral condyle of humerus.   I= upper posterior ridge of ulna.   A= initiation of extension, stabilization
  7. What muscles for the forearm are pronators, supinators or both?
    • TWO Supinators:
    • Supinator
    • Bicep brachii

    • TWO pronators: 
    • Pronator Teres
    • Pronator Quadratus

    • Brachioradialis will pronate and supinate back to a neutral position.
  8. Know the Anterior muscles of the wrist, hand, fingers origins, insertions, and actions
    Pronator teres and Quadratus are the outlaws of the anterior forearm... WHy?

    • At the Superficial/Intermediate Anterior
    • Forearm Layer All with the same O=Med. Epicondyle and A= wrist flexion/Elbow Flexion, unless otherwise stated:
    • 1. Flexor Carpi Radialis   I= 2-3 Metacarpal base. 
    • 2. Palmaris Longus  I= metacarpals.  
    • 3. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris  I= metacarpals.
    • 4. Flexor Digitorum Superficialis    I= Proximal Phalanges 2-5.   A= Digit flexion as well.

    • Deep Anterior Forearm Layer:
    • 1. Flexor Digitorum Profundus   O= Ulna    I= Distal Phalanges 2-5   A= Wrist flexion, finger flexion.
    • 2. Flexor Pollicis Longus   O= Radius/Ulna   I= Distal Phalange 1   A= Wrist flexion, thumb flexion.
    • 3. Pronator Quadratus   O= Ulna   I= Radius  A= Pronation
  9. Know the Posterior muscles of the wrist, hand, fingers origins, insertions, and actions
    • Posterior Forearm Superficial Layer, all have same O=Lateral Epicondyle and ridge:
    • Ext. Carpi Radialis Longus *OUTLAW*  I= #2 Metacarpal   A= Wrist ext. and radial deviation.
    • Ext. Car. Rad. Brev. *OUTLAW*   I= #3 metacarpal   A= Wrist ext. and radial deviation.
    • Extensor Digitorum    I= Middle and distal phalange 2-5   A= Wrist ext. + digit Ext.
    • Ext. Dig. Min.    I= Middle and Distal Phalange 5    A= Wrist ext. and digit ext.
    • Ext. Car. Ulnaris    I #5 metacarpal   A= Wrist ext. + Ulnar Devation

    • Posterior Forearm Deep Layer, all are medium to weak wrist extensors :( :
    • Abductor pollicis long.   O= Radius/Ulna   I= #1 metacarpal   A= #1 abduction and extension
    • Ext. Poll. Brevis   O=Radius    I= #1 Proximal Phalange   A= #1 Abduction and extension
    • Ext. Poll. Longus   O= Ulna   I= #1 Distal Phalange   A= #1 abduction and extension
    • Ext. Indicis *OUTLAW*   O= Ulna   I= #2 middle/distal phalange    A= #2 Extension
  10. Special features of the Thumb?
    • Extension + Flexion happen on the same plane as adduction and abduction of the fingers.
    • Opposable! 3 Joints:
    • Carpometacarpal joint: Saddle, sloppy
    • Metacarpophalangeal: Hinge-like with less motion
    • Interphalangeal joint: ONly one hinge joint.

    • "twirling trapezium" changes planes.
    • Not covered by Palmar Aponeurosis.
    • Joint Capsule thick + posteriorly and lax and thin anteriorly

    • :::Controlled by 8 Muscles:::
    • Intrinsic Muscles- Thenar eminence:
    • Abductor Pollicis Brevis    O= Scaphoid and Trapezium.   I= Proximal phalange of #1 Digit(thumb)   A= Abduction, Flexion, Opposition
    • Flexor Pollicis Brevis   O= Trapezium    I= Proximal phalange of #1 digit.   A= Abduction, flexion, Opposition
    • Opponens Pollicis   O= Trapezium   I= Proximal Phalange of #1 digit + lateral border of distal metacarpal #1.   A= Abduction, Flexion, Opposition

    • Lies beneath thenar eminence:
    • Adductor Pollicis   O= Capitate, Scaphoid, 2, 3, metacarpal.   I= Proximal phalange #1   A= Adduction, duh...

    • Intrinsic muscles- Hypothenar Eminance:
    • 1. Abductor Digiti Minimi   O= Pisiform   I= Proximal phalange of #5 digit   A= Abduction, Flexion, Opposition
    • 2. Flexor Digiti Minimi   O= hamate hook   I= Proximal phalange of #5 digit   A= Flexion, Abduction, Opposition
    • 3. Opponens Digiti Minimi   O= Hamate.   I= Proximal phalange of #5 digit, medial border.   A= Opposition, abduction, Flexion
    • 4. Palmar Interossei   O= Medial Metacarpal 2, Lateral 4, 5.   I= medial, Proximal phalange 2, lateral 4,5.  A= Adduction to #3
    • 5. Dorsal Interossei  O= Medial metacarpal 1, lateral 5, medial and lateral 2, 3, 4.   I= Lateral proximal phalange 2,3, medial proximal 3,4.    A= Abduction away from #3
    • 6. Lumbricals   O= Tendinous tissue, Flexor digitorum profundus.  I= Lateral proximal pahalnge 2,3,4,5   A= Flexion initiation and cupping.
  11. Know the muscles of the interior pelvis, superficial and deep, o and I, A
    • Internal Pelvis:
    • Iliacus    O= Internal iliac fossa.     I= Lesser Trochanter.    A= Hip flexion, lordotic tendencies.

    • Psoas Major     O= Lateral bodies of T12-L5   I= Lesser Trochanter     A= Hip FLexion, slight external rotation, lordotic tendencies

    • Psoas Minor     O= Lateral bodies of T12-L3   I= Iliopectineal eminence..    A= Hip flexion, external rotation, lordotic tendencies.
  12. Know the muscles of the exterior pelvis, superficial and deep, o and I, A
    • Posterior Lateral:
    • GLuteus Maximus   O= Posterior Gluteal Line of Ilium.    I= Upper fibers- femoral gluteal line, Lower fibers- iliotibial tract to head of fibula.     A= Extension, stabilization of weight line with tensor fascia latae. Outward rotation.

    • Gluteus Medius    O= SUperior to inferior gluteal lines.    I= Greater Trochanter.    A= Abduction, inward rotation.

    Gluteus Minimus    O=Anterior to inferior gluteal lines.    I= Greater trochanter.     A=Abduction, inward rotation

    • Anterior Lateral:
    • Tensor Fascia Latae    O= Iliac crest and anterior superior iliac spine.     I= Head of fibula and lateral condyle of tibia.    A= Stabilizes torso in line of hip and knee, flexes hip, internally rotates hip.

    Sartorius    O= Anterior superior Iliac spine    I= Medial/anterior condyle and surface of tibia.    A= Flexion of hip, some external rotation, likes to stabilize weight between trunk and knee.
  13. Know the Deep muscles of the pelvis, o and I, A
    • Exterior Pelvis Deep: In order of superior to inferior.
    • Piriformis
    • Superior Gemelli
    • Obturator Internis
    • Inferior Gemelli
    • Obturator Externis
    • Quadratus Femoris


    • O= Common origin lined up from superiolateral sacrum and greaer sciatic notch of ilium to ischial tuberosity.
    • I=Lined up superior to inferior on common insertion; greater trochanter.
    • A= COmmon action of outward hip rotation.
  14. Know which of the abdo muscles tilt pelvis to ribs, ribs to pelvis, rotate to same side, and rotate to opposite side.
  15. Identify muscles that have a special role in helping stabilize the shoulder against the pull of gravity along the long axis of the humerus.
    Coracobrachialis, Deltoid, Tricep Brachii
Card Set
Kins 151 exam 2
Arm/forearm/hand. some pelvis and spine.