Digestive System

  1. Salivary Glands
    las glándulas salivales
  2. Tongue
    La lengua
  3. Liver
    El hígado
  4. Large intestines
    El intestino grueso
  5. Transverse Colon
    El colon transverso
  6. Ascending Colon
    El colon ascendente
  7. Descending Colon
    El colon descendente
  8. Cecum
    El intestino ciego
  9. Appendix
    El apéndice
  10. Rectum
    El recto
  11. Throat
    La garganta
  12. Pharynx
    La faringe
  13. Larynx
    La laringe
  14. Esophagus
    El esófago
  15. Stomach
    El estómago
  16. Pylorus
    El píloro
  17. Small Intestines
    El intestino delgado
  18. Duodenum
    El duodeno
  19. Jejunum
    El yeyuno
  20. Ileum
    El íleon
  21. Anus
    El ano
  22. Sigmoid colon
    El colon sigmoideo
  23. Gall bladder
    La vesícula biliar
  24. Pancreas
    El páncreas
  25. Spleen
    El bazo
  26. Teeth
    Los dientes
  27. Uvula
    la úvula
  28. Lower lip
    El labio inferior
  29. Upper lip
    El labio superior
  30. Tongue
    La lengua
  31. Tonsils
    Las amígdalas
  32. Anorectal Manometry
    Manometria anorectal 

    a test that measures the strength of the anal sphincter muscles
  33. Anoscopy

    -a 3-4in lon tube with a light at the end used to examine the inside of the anus and rectum  -used to diagnose hemorrhoids, tears in the anal lining, anal fissures, and some cancers
  34. Antroduodenal Manometry
    Manometria atroduodenal

    evaluates how well the stomach and the beginning of the small intestine (duodenum) are working
  35. Barium enema
    Enema de Bario

    an x-ray of the large intestine
  36. Cirrhosis

    • -a chronic degenerative liver disease causing injury to the liver cells
    • -characterized by liver failure
  37. Colic

    • -spasmodic pain in the abdomen or bowels caused by spasm, obstruction, or distention
    • -a condition of unknown cause seen in infants of 3mo marked by inconsolable crying for hours at a time, usually in the late afternoon and early evening
  38. Colonoscopy

    the direct visual examination of the inner surface of the entire colon from the rectum to the cecum
  39. Colorectal cancer
    Cáncer colorectal

    • -development of cancer in the colon or rectum
    • -symptoms include blood in the stool, change in bowel movement, weight loss, and feeling tired all the time
    • -risk factors include age, lifestyle, diet, smoking, alcohol, and genetics
  40. Colostomy

    surgical construction of an artificial excretory opening from the colon
  41. Digital Rectal Examination (DRE)
    Examen Rectal Digital

    manual exam of the anus for tumors and prostate disorders
  42. Diverticulosis

    • -condition of having out-pocketing in the mucosa and submucosa of of the colon through weakness of the muscular layers of the colon wall
    • -can be asymptomatic and usually occurs in people over 40
    • -can be attributed to having a low-fiber diet
  43. Endoscopy

    an exam used to examine internal organs or hollow cavities of the body using an endoscope, an instrument with a rigid or flexible tube that has a light and a lens
  44. Esophageal varices
    Várices esofágicas

    • -enlarged and swollen veins at the lower end of the esophagus
    • -severe bleeding occurs when ruptured
  45. Esophagus

    pathway that transports food from the pharynx to the stomach
  46. Fecal analysis (stool analysis)
    Análisis de material fecal

    • -a test to detect the presence of pathogenic microorganisms i.e. yeast, parasites, and bacteria, that contribute to chronic illnesses and neurological dysfunction
    • -done by analyzing the contents of a stool sample
  47. Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT) 

    Hemoccult (names of manufacturer
    Sangre oculta en heces

    • -a lab test for hidden blood in the stool
    • -the stool sample is placed on a treated piece of paper
  48. Gallbladder
    Vesícula biliar

    • -stores bile and releases it to the small intestine as needed
    • -runs between the liver and pancreas
  49. Gallstones

    Cálculos biliares

    hard deposits formed in the gallbladder and bile ducts due to the concretion of bile components
  50. Heartburn


    Acid reflux
    Pyrosis (acidez gástrica)

    reflujo ácido

    a burning sensation caused by the return of acidic stomach contents to the esophagus
  51. Hepatitis

    inflammation of the liver caused by viral infection- types A-C
  52. Hernia

    the protrusion of a part or structure through the tissues that normally contain it 

    ex] hiatal hernia - part of the stomach protrudes through the esophageal opening in the diaphragm
  53. Intestinal obstruction (bowel obstruction)
    Obstrucción intestinal

    a partial or complete blockage of the small or large intestine caused by a physical obstruction

    ex] scar, tumor
  54. Large intestine (colon)
    Intestino grueso

    absorbs excess water, prepares solid waste for elimination

    cecum > ascending colon > transverse colon > descending colon > sigmoid colon> rectum
  55. Liver

    • -the large dark red organ located to the left of the stomach, in the upper right portion of the abdomen
    • -stores and filters the blood
    • -secretes bile
    • -converts sugars into glycogen
    • -synthesizes and breaks down fats
    • -temporary storage for fatty acid
    • -synthesizes certain blood serum proteins
  56. Pancreas

    • -organ that secretes digestive juices and enzymes into the small intestine as needed
    • -sits below the stomach, connected to the spleen
  57. Pancreatitis

    inflammation of the pancreas, the leading cause of which is long-term alcohol abuse
  58. Ulcer
    Úlcera péptica

    an open lesion of the skin or mucous membrane resulting in tissue losses around the edges
  59. Sigmoidoscopy

    the endoscopic examination of the interior of the rectum, sigmoid colon, and possibly a portion of the descending colon
  60. Small intestine
    Intestino delgado

    completes digestion and absorption of most nutrients

    duodenum > jejunum > ileum
  61. Spleen

    • -part of the lymphatic system that helps filter the blood
    • -forms white blood cells
    • -cleans out old, worn-out red blood cells
    • -located in the upper left quadrant, below the diaphragm and behind the stomach
    • -connected to the pancreas
Card Set
Digestive System
Digestive System