CattleII- Abortion

  1. What are types of pregnancy wastage? (4)
    • infertility/ low conception rate
    • early embryonic death
    • abortion
    • stillbirth
  2. What are normal conception rates for dairy and beef farms?
    • dairy 35%
    • beef 66%
  3. What is the downside to early pregnancy detection, and how do we mitigate it?
    10% of pregnancies found at dat 28 will be lost; re-check around 60 days
  4. Define the follow in terms of days pregnant:
    • EED- lost prior to day 42
    • Abortion- lost day 42- term
    • Stillbirth- lost day 265 to term (or within 24hr of birth)
  5. Bacterial causes of pregnancy wastage. (5)
    • Lepto borgopetersenii hardjo
    • T pyo
    • Lepto interrogans subsp. pomona
    • Listeria monocytogenes
    • Campylobacter fetus subsp venerealis
  6. When does your suspicion for Lepto borgpetersenii increase?
    when cows are found open after being presented for recheck b/c they were seen in heat
  7. How can you prevent Lepto borgpetesenii infection?
    Spirovac (separate from 5way lepto vaccine)
  8. How can you prevent Lepto borgpetersenii related abortions?
    Spirovac doesn't prevent an infected cow from aborting; she must be cleared of infection with tetracycline and then vaccinated to prevent re-infection
  9. When do you vaccinate a herd for Lepto borgpetersenii?
    when the herd has been established positive
  10. Any infection anywhere in a ruminant that has been there longer than a few weeks (few exceptions: S. aureus mastitis, lumpy jaw) is ___________.
    T. pyogenes
  11. If you find T. pyogenes at necropsy, what should you do?
    go looking for he underlying cause (such as BVDv)
  12. When does Lepto interrogans usually cause abortion problems?
    third trimester
  13. When does Listeria usually cause abortion problems?
    third trimester
  14. When/ how is PW due to Listeria diagnosed?
    necropsy of aborted fetus, small grey hepatic foci
  15. What are clinical signs of the dam associated with Listeria PW? (3)
    fever, weight loss, ADR, but NOT CNS signs
  16. Vibrio is caused by _____________, and if you don't have a(n) ___________, then you don't have Vibrio because...
    Campy fetus subsp venerealis; bull; it is a true venereal dz
  17. Vibrio usually causes ____(2)____.
    infertility or EED (not abortion)
  18. How is vibrio diagnosed?
    history and clinical findings suggestive, +/- paired serology, isolation of organism
  19. Cows infected with Campy fetus subsp venerealis can sometimes...
    spontaneously cure.
  20. ___________ are most likely to be chronic carriers of vibrio.
    Bulls >4 years old
  21. How can you prevent/ clear vibrio?
    vaccination; can clear a bull by vaccination, cows spontaneously cure
  22. IBR, caused by ____________, causes abortion at ___________ most commonly, and is diagnosed by...
    bovine herpesvirus-1; 4-8 months gestation (but any time of preg possible); necropsy of aborted fetus
  23. The ____________ of the ML vaccine is what usually causes naive dams to abort after vaccination.
    IBR fraction
  24. Describe prevention of BHV-1.
    biosecurity, vaccination
  25. BVD usually causes _________.
    EED (later in gestation, cerebellar hypoplasia or PI)
  26. How is BVD diagnosed?
    necropsy of aborted fetus- submit kidney, lung, lymph node, for fluorescent antibody
  27. How is BVD prevented?
    biosecurity, vaccination
  28. When does tritrichomonas fetus caused PW?
    infertility or EED
  29. Pyometra, lots of open cows, and EED...what do you think?
    tritrichomonas fetus
  30. Describe management of tritrichomonas fetus.
    cows usually clear it within 90 days, bulls over 4yr are permanently infected and should be culled
  31. How is tritrichomonas diagnosed?
    history suggestive, isolation of organism in aborted fetus/dam/bull
  32. When does Neospora caninum cause PW?
    early second trimester (can occur throughout gestation)
  33. How is Neospora caninum diagnosed?
    • necropsy of aborted fetus- often ssee myocarditis- submit heart, liver, tongue
    • history- dogs, coyotes pooping in feed/ pasture
  34. How is Neospora caninum perpetuated in the herd?
    NO HORIZONTAL TRANSMISSION, cows eat feces of dogs that ate placenta of infected herdmate, vertical from cow to calf
  35. Viral causes of pregnancy wastage. (2)
    BHV-1, BVDv
  36. Protozoal causes of pregnancy wastage. (2)
    Tritrichomonas fetus, Neospora caninum
  37. When does Aspergillus cause PW?
    almost always 3rd trimester but any stage
  38. What do you almost always see with pregnancy wastage due to Aspergillus?
    leathery thickening of placenta, spots on placenta, ringworm like lesions on fetal skin
  39. Fungal cause of pregnancy wastage.
    Aspergillus fumigatus
  40. What are a few toxic causes of pregnancy wastage? (5)
    Fescue, Gossypol (cottonseed), nitrates, mycotoxins, pine needles
  41. Up to ________ of pregnant cows will show signs of estrus up to 21 days; this is of concern because...
    5%; you can knock calves out (ie. abort them) by inseminating them again.
  42. Iatrogenic causes of pregnancy wastage. (5)
    insemination of a preg cow, following too many vaccines at once, following Mu-Se injections, following glucocorticoid administration, following rectal palp (??no not really)
  43. Incidental causes of pregnancy wastage. (4)
    mastitis (esp coliforms), heat, twins, Se deficiency
  44. What is the most important historical fact when investigating the cause of pregnancy?
    stage of gestation when it occurred
  45. Potential causes of outbreaks of abortion. (3)
    NEOSPORA CANINUM, BHV-1 (less likely in vaccinated herd), BVDv
  46. Causes of EED (PW in first 42 days). (3)
    • Vibrio (Campy fetus ss venerealis)
    • BVDv
    • Tritrichomoas fetus
  47. Causes of infertility/ decreased conception rate. (3)
    • Lepto borgpetersenii
    • Vibrio (Campy fetus ss venerealis)
    • Tritrichomonas fetus
  48. Causes of abortion in secondary trimester. (2)
    • Early- Neospora caninum (any stage really tho)
    • Late- BHV-1
  49. Causes of abortion in the third trimester. (4)
    • Lepto interrogans ss pomona
    • Listeria
    • BHV-1
    • Aspergillus (any stage really tho)
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CattleII- Abortion
vetmed cattleII