Dairy3- Heifer Mgmt

  1. Disadvantage of using a contractor to raise your replacement heifers.
    your heifers are commingled with cows form other herd—>mechanism for introducing new diseases to your herd
  2. Disadvantage of raising your own replacement heifers.
    labor, cost
  3. Why do we promptly remove calves from the dam in less than 24hr? (5)
    • exposure to pathogens from dam
    • calf at risk for injury
    • calves left to nurse on their own have a higher incidence of FPT
    • monitor closely for milk intake and health
    • decrease stress on cow and calf (stress of separation is higher the longer you wait)
  4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of removing a calf from the dam after 4 days after birth?
    • Disadvantages: more vocalizations, increased HR, more agitated [stress]
    • Advantages: gain better, improved socialization
  5. A recent study showing the advantages of raising calves in small groups showed... (4)
    calves had high daily weights, less severe cases of diarrhea, less mortality rates, high incidence of respiratory diseases if direct contact and big groups
  6. What are advantages of hutches? (3)
    seek microclimate, isolation does not affect weight gain, behavior or future socialization if they can see each other, better ventilation
  7. What are the disadvantages of hutches? (3)
    working conditions, weather, heat and cold stress
  8. What are the 3 major phases of nutrition?
    • pre-ruminant (0-3wks)- restricted ability to digest non-milk proteins
    • transition (3-8wks)- milk constituents, VFA, microbial proteins
    • ruminant (>8wks)- solid feeds only
  9. What are advantages and disadvantages of using waste milk to feed calves?
    • Advantages: "free" milk, practical
    • Disadvantages: pathogen source (Johnes, E coli, BVD), antibiotic residues, availability may vary (depends on how many sick cows you have), nutritional consistency may vary
  10. What are advantages and disadvantages of using sellable milk to feed calves?
    • Advantages: abundant, excellent nutritional content, apparently pathogen free
    • Disadvantages: expense/ reduced profit, consistency may vary
  11. What are advantages and disadvantages of using a pasteurizer?
    • Advantages: reduced bacterial transmission, improved weight gain, health, economic
    • Disadvantages: cost, management, machine failure
  12. What are the advantages and disadvantages to using milk replacer to feed calves?
    • Advantages: good for strict disease control, easy to use and store, consistent supply, multiple formulations
    • Disadvantages: expense, mixing issues/ errors, may or may not have additives
  13. What is the purpose of feeding calf starter?
    • drives rumen development- rumen papillae grow in response to increasing VFA levels
    • starter intake should double each week until weaning
  14. Do you need to feed forages to pre-weaned calves?
    if starter has good texture, probably not (maybe if its a pelleted starter)
  15. What is the thermoneutral zone for newborn calves and 1 month old calves?
    • newborn 50-78 degrees
    • 1 month old 32-73 degrees
  16. What usually happens b/w 35-70 days of age? (5)
    diarrhea incidence should be decreasing, respiratory disease may be on the rise, stater intake should be increasing, preventative vaccinations, weaning when intake is suitable for maintenance and growth (~2.2lb/day)
  17. What challenges arise during 6-10 weeks of life? (3)
    respiratory disease risk period, transition to group housing, transition from milk to grain/forage
  18. What is the ideal bodyweight at first breeding?
    55% of mature weight
  19. What is the ideal body weight at first calving?
    82% of mature weight
  20. What are weaning strategies? (3)
    • age: 6-8weeks
    • intake: 2.2lb/day
    • reduce volume of liquid feed, reduce number of feedings to once per day, dilute liquid feed with additional water (if you have resources, time for this)
  21. Target growth rates:
    24hr-60 days-
    61-120 days-
    121-180 days-
    • double birth weight
    • 2.2# ADG
    • 2# ADG
Card Set
Dairy3- Heifer Mgmt
vetmed dairy3