Anthro 101 Primate Classifications

  1. Look at page 147 in text memorize superfamily and have basic understanding of chart
  2. What are the two primate suborders?
    1) Strepsirhini (wet nose: enhances sense of smell)/(closer to primitive mammal)

    2) Haplorhini (dry nose)
  3. What are the two prosimian superfamilies?
    • lemuroidea
    • lorisoidea
  4. What traits make Lemurs and Lorises slightly more “primitive” than the rest of the primates?
    • 1st evolved 60-65 million years ago
    • relatively small size
    • smell is really important
    • long snout for sense of smell because it allows for more receptors to enhance sense of smell
    • nocturnal and lack color vision
    • their 2nd digit is used as a grooming claw
    • have dental comb for grroming and feeding
  5. what are the three superfamilies of the Anthropoids?
    • Ateloidea (new world monkeys)
    • Cercopithecoidea (old world monkeys)
    • Hominoidea (Apes and Humans)
  6. what distinguishes New World Monkeys from Old World Monkeys and apes (dental formulae, type of tails, etc.)
    • New World: Ateloidea superfamily
    • New world: outward facing nose: Platyrrhines
    • New world: prehensile tails
    • New World Dental: 2-1-3-3 (4 more premolars than old world monkey). Diastema (gap between teeth)
    • New World: Primarily arboreal auadrupeds

    • Old World: Cercopithecoidea superfamily
    • Old world: Downward facing nose: Catarrhines
    • Old World Dental: 2-1-2-3
    • Old World: Quadrupeds, both arboreal and terrestrial
    • Old World: No prehensile tails
  7. platyrrhines

    Image Upload 1
    outward facing nose
  8. catarrhines

    Image Upload 2
    downward facing nose
  9. Difference between ape and human phenetic and cladistic classification

    IDK about this question
    • gorilla and human are not under same phenetic classification for family
    • under cladistic classification gorilla and human are under same family
  10. What kinds information is the new cladistic/genetic classification based on (besides, of course, DNA)?
    • based on Biochemistry studies
    • 1) protein sequences
    • 2) Immunological responses (how species respond to diseases)
    • 3) DNA
  11. Orangutan

    superfamily, family, genus, and species
    • Hominoidea    
    • Hominoidae            
    • Pongo            
    • pygmaeus

    • highly endangered
    • Males have wide look when sexually mature;  the wider more attractive
    • Solitary, only get together to mate (unless mother and offspring)
    • Frugivorous (50% of diet fruit)
    • High sexual dimorphism , fit pattern for polygamy
    • Males 175-200lb
    • Females 75-100lb
    • only Climbers/hangers Not true brachiators (massive size keeps them from brachiating)
    • Polygamous (but live alone)
    • Like humans, no visible estrus
    • Females can come into heat any time around males (When fruits are most ripe females are more receptive to mating)
    • Long gestation period about 8 months
    • Don’t start mating until 14 years old
  12. Gorilla

    superfamily, family, genus, and species
    • Hominoidea    
    • Hominoidae           
    • Gorilla              
    • gorilla

    • African Great Apes
    • Image Upload 3
  13. Chimpanzee

    superfamily, family, genus, and species
    • Hominoidea    
    • Hominoidae            
    • Pan                    
    • troglodytes

    • Image Upload 4
    • Jane Goodall Studied Chimps
  14. Bonobos

    superfamily, family, genus, and species
    • Hominoidea    
    • Hominoidae            
    • Pan                    
    • paniscus

    • called pygmy chimapanzee by some
    • Image Upload 5
    • Image Upload 6
Card Set
Anthro 101 Primate Classifications