Anthro 101 midterm language vs. communication

  1. types of mammalian communication signals
    • autonomic
    • intentional
  2. Autonomic
    • unintentional signals that one gives off
    • ex. blushing/sweating
    • nothing specific about them
  3. intentional
    • facial expressions
    • gestures
    • vocalizations
    • Warning barks
  4. Non human system of communication
    • closed system
    • Involuntary
    • Unspecific (indicate danger, but don’t know from what)
    • Operate in present tense
  5. Human language system of communication
    • Open system 
    • voluntary and specific
    • Unique from animals
  6. Symbolic
    Use symbols to stand for meaning
  7. Multi-media potential
    • Spoken
    • face to face
    • signs (sign language, gesture)
    • writing system
    • body language
    • Intonation is important for speech, and you cant do it with writing.
  8. Arbitrary
    • Words and symbols are unrelated to things themselves ex. apple and orange
    • Symbols we use to communicate are arbitrary
  9. recombinable elements
    • Words are made up of units that are recombined
    • ex. letters
  10. Productive
    • Language can create new concepts
    • We can create concepts that don’t exist
  11. Displacement
    • Can discuss something that isn’t in present tense
    • Can talk about past, future, or conditional tense
  12. Open system
    human language
  13. Cross-fostering
    • one species raising another
    • ex. roger fouts working with washoe
  14. language
    system of communication using sounds or gestures put together in meaningful ways according to a set of rules
  15. why can't chimps speak?
    • No Pharynx (voice box)
    • No Mouth morphology
    • No Tongue control
  16. Chimpanzee Washoe
    • Roger fouts worked with washoe
    • Cross-fostered: one species raises another
    • Trained washoe in ASL – learned at least 150 signs 
    • Washoe Was able to invent signs and create combinations of signs to refer to new animals water bird (swan) Metal hot (lighter) Red cry fruit (radish) Metal cup drink (thermos)
    • Taught infant Loulis ASL
  17. cooperative hunting
    • craig standford determined chimps hunt cooperatively
    • Pre-planned
    • Limited to Small animals (i.e colobos monkey)
    • Share meat with all
Card Set
Anthro 101 midterm language vs. communication