Anthro 101 Midterm Primates

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  1. Why do we say primates are generalized?
    • because they are adapted to a wide range of environments
    • Resulted in their skeletal structure that is used for multiple things (food and locomotion)
  2. What is the difference between primates and other mammals?
    - some animals have only one function of their skeletal structure (ex. Horse hoof- one digit Function only for locomotion)

    • primates have many functions:
    • 1. Better vision: stereoscopic and Diurnal vision
    • 2. Heterodonts (many different teeth for eating variety of foods)
    • 3. reduced senses (auditory and olfactory)
    • 4. generalized locomotion (can do multiple types of locomotion)
    • 5. Five digits
  3. what is stereoscopic vision?
    why is it important to have?
    • depth perception
    • Allows to see quality of food (ripeness and rawness or poisonous food)
  4. Diurnal
    • color vision
    • necessary to see poisonous food and ripeness or rawness
  5. Nocturnal
    • active at night
    • no color vision
    • most nocturnal species don’t see color
  6. 4 types of primate positional behavior
    • Quadrupedal: use of 4 limbs (arboreal & terrestrial)
    • Vertical clinging and leaping: long arms for grabbing
    • Suspensory/Brachiation: Swing from trees 
    • Bipedal: use of 2 limbs
  7. arboreal quadruped
    • in the trees run on branches
    • Longer hind limbs then forelimbs

    Image Upload 1
  8. terrestrial quadruped
    • arms and legs are same length
    • Keeps backbone parallel to the ground

    Image Upload 2
  9. Suspensory positional behavior
    • brachiation- swinging from trees
    • Ex. gibbons

    Image Upload 3
  10. humans are the only _____ bipeds
    obligate

    Image Upload 4
  11. Types of primate social structure

    (PP-MM-S)
    • Polygynous    
    • Polyandrous  
    • Monogamous    
    • Multimale/multifemale  
    • Solitary
  12. 4 Differences between primates and humans
    • 1) prehensility
    • 2) altricial young
    • 3) highly intelligent
    • 4) varied social organization
  13. Differences between primates and humans:

    Prehensility/prehensile
    • an appendage adapted for holding or grasping
    • Only new world monkeys have prehensile tails ex. black howler monkey
    • All primates have dermal ridges; humans have closer dermal ridges, which has to do with how sensitive our fingers are
    • Opposable digits – related to prehensility
    • spider monkey's do not have opposable digit on front legs
    • Most primates have nails, no claws
    • Tarsier's have little claws
    • Sensitive tactile digits

    Image Upload 5
  14. Differences between primates and humans:

    Altricial young
    • born helpless
    • typically primates will have one offspring at a time
    • Long gestation periods; carrying in utero
    • Primates have longest period of dependency among mammals
  15. Differences between primates and humans:

    highly intelligent
    • humans and chimps have largest brain relative to body size
    • human brain surface is about 1350 cc
    • chimp brain surface is 400 cc
    • Humans have big neocortex (thinking part of brain)
  16. Differences between primates and humans:

    varied social organization
    • Monogamous – ex. gibbons, samangs
    • Uni-male groups – Gorillas
    • Uni-female – marmasets + tamarines
    • Multifemale /multimale – baboons, macaques, chimps
    • solitary - orangutans
  17. Rhinarium
    organ in the nostril that makes nose damp
  18. Dental comb

    Image Upload 6
    group of front teeth found in lemurs and lorises for grooming and feeding
  19. Dental Formula: 

    Old World Monkey

    (including humans)
    • 2-1-2-3
    • Total: 32

    Image Upload 7
  20. Dental Formula:

    New World Monkey
    • 2-1-3-3
    • Total: 36

    Image Upload 8
  21. Dental Formula:

    Marmosets
    • 2-1-3-2
    • Total: 32
  22. What are incisors used for?
    • slicing
    • cutting
    • gnawing
  23. What are canines used for?
    • stabbing
    • holding prey
    • threatening others
  24. What are premolars used for?
    • grasping
    • holding on to prey
    • chew
    • grind
  25. What are molars used for?
    • shearing
    • grinding food
    • Chewing
    • Crushing
  26. Significance of Madagascar
    lemurs only found on madagascar
  27. Who is Dian Fossey?
    What Species did she study?
    Studied Gorillas
  28. Who is Jane Goodall?
    What Species did she study?
    • Studied Chimpanzees in Tanzania at Gombe national park
    • 1st to identify them using tools, straw, and breaking nuts with rocks
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Anthro 101 Midterm Primates
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Primates
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