Anthro 101 Study Guide Macroevolution and Classification

  1. What is Macroevolution?
    • Concept for understanding:
    • our place in the biological world
    • What kind of animal are we and how did we get that way?
    • our emergence around 200,000 years ago
  2. What are the 2 types of speciation?
    • Phyletic Transformation
    • Cladogenesis
  3. Phyletic transformation
    conversion of a species into a new species over long periods of time
  4. Cladogenesis
    “branching” evolution – splitting of a species
  5. 2 types of Cladogenesis
    • Allopatric
    • parapatric
  6. Allopatric
    • Production of new species by branching of existing ones.
    • Begins with geographical isolation
  7. Parapatric
    • speciation in the context of partially overlapping ranges  
    • Example: Papio Anubis, Papio hamadryas, Papio cynocephalus
  8. Phylogeny
    evolution of a genetically related group of organisms
  9. What is adaptive radiation and what is a good example of it?

    hint: lemurs, what is it about lemurs that makes them such a good example of adaptive radiation?
    • expansion and diversification of life forms into new ecological niches.
    • lemurs: Lemur separation/Madagascar/ only live in Madagascar

    • Two factors:
    • 1) Species has to have adaptive potential Some species are more adaptable than others Primates are very adaptable
    • 2) Adaptive opportunities
  10. Taxonomy/taxa
    • Groups =taxa
    • Taxonomy: classification of organisms according to their relationship and ordering of groups into hierarchies
  11. Linnaean system
    • Old system based on Phenetic classification
    • Today its based on Cladistic classification
  12. Difference between Phenetic and cladistic classification
    Phenetic: based on physical, directly observable similarities or differences between taxa 

    Cladistic: taxonomy based on evolutionary descent Typically Genetic “distance” for cladistics classification
  13. list in hierarchical order the basic labels of the Linnaean Classification System
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • species
  14. Humans in Linnaean System
    • Kingdom: Animal
    • Phylum: Chordata (has to do with spinal column)
    • Class: Mammalia
    • Order: Primates/primata
    • Family: Hominidae
    • Genus: Homo
    • Species: sapiens

    *lowercase species name
  15. Primitive traits
    • derived from distant early ancestors
    • Premolars = 8
    • Prehensile hands
    • Old world monkeys, apes, and humans
  16. Shared derived traits
    • inherited from a more recent ancestor
    • Tail
    • Old world monkey have tails
    • Apes and humans don’t have tails
  17. Unique derived traits
    • adaption specific to species
    • Humans have flat feet because they are fully upright and bipedal
    • Monkeys feet can pick things up
  18. Define Classification
    • grouping of similar entities
    • means for structuring data within groups (similarities) and between groups (dissimilarities)
  19. niche
    a specific resource used by species
  20. Modes of Change

    • Psuedo Extinction
    • Gradualism
    • True Extinction
    • Adaptive Radiation
    • Punctuated Equilibrium
    • Extinction
  21. Modes of Change:

    Psuedo Extinction
    • phyletic transformation
    • All species last about 4 mil. Years which is avg for all species of life
  22. Modes of Change:

    • gradual change in evolving species over a long period of time
    • you can actually see these changes
  23. Modes of Change:

    True Extinction
    all members of a species die
  24. Modes of Change:

    Adaptive Radiation
    expansion and diversification of life forms into new ecological niches
  25. Modes of Change:

    Punctuated Equilibrium
    • long periods of no change punctuated by rapid events of change
    • Fewer intermediate forms because time is relatively short
  26. Modes of Change:

    loss of a species because all members die
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Anthro 101 Study Guide Macroevolution and Classification
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