Psych Test 2 2016

  1. Ways to Reduce Dissonance
    • Change Behavior
    • Justify behavior by changing one of the dissonant cognitions
    • Justify behavior by adding new cognitions
  2. Self-Affirmation
    • Bolster the self-concept.
    • Reducing dissonance by adding a cognition about other positive attributes that don't have to be related
  3. Impact Bias
    • The tendency to overestimate the intensify and duration of our emotional reactions to future negative events. 
    • It happens when we underestimate how good we are at getting over it
  4. Post Decision Dissonance
    • Dissonance aroused after making a decision
    • We  think of negative aspects of what we chose and positive aspects of what we rejected.
    • Like buyers remorse
  5. Justifying Your Efforts
    People may interpret ambiguities in a positive way when it helps to justify effort
  6. Festinger and Carlsmith
    • Students were payed $20 or $1 and were told to lie.
    • Those who were payed $20 rated the task as dull and boring and the money was sufficient justification for lying
    • Those who were payed $1 rated the task as more enjoyable
  7. Justifying Cruelty
    When we act cruel, we resolve dissonance by blaming the victim
  8. Justifying Acts of Kindness
    Dissonance Theory predicts that when we dislike someone, if we do them a favor, we will like them more
  9. Persuasive Communication
    • Who said what to whom:
    • Who - The source of the communication
    • What - The nature of the communication
    • Whom - The nature of the audience
  10. Cialdini's 6 Universal Principles of Persuasion
    • Social Proof
    • Commitment
    • Reciprocation
    • Liking
    • Authority
    • Scarcity
  11. Reciprocity
    People feel obligated to return favors
  12. Commitment and Consistency
    We are motivated to act consistently, so when we commit to something, we;re likely to stick with it
  13. Social Proof
    Safety in numbers. Especially in the case of similar others.
  14. Liking
    More influenced by people with like similar others, familiar, and ingratiation
  15. Authority
    We feel a sense of obligation to people that we perceive to be in positions of authority
  16. Scarcity
    We are more attracted to things that appear to have limited availability
  17. Routes to Persuasion
    • Central Route
    • Peripheral Route
  18. Central Route to Persuasion
    When people are motivated and have the ability to pay attention to the arguments in the communication.
  19. Peripheral Route to Persuasion
    When people do not pay attention to the arguments but are instead swayed by surface characteristics
  20. Motivation to Pay Attention to the Argument
    • Personal relevance of the topic: More relevant = more attention
    • Need for Cognition: The extent to which people engage in and enjoy effortful cognitive activities
    • Ability to Pay attention: When not able to pay attention we are swayed more by peripheral cues
  21. Fear Arousing Communications
    Persuasive messages that attempt to change peoples attitudes by arousing their fears.
  22. Emotions as a Heuristic
    • We often use "How do I feel about it?" as a heuristic
    • Problem: Can make mistakes about what is causing our mood and therefore we can make a bad decision
  23. Utility Vs Emotion
    • Utility - Price, reliability, efficiency
    • Emotion - Sex, beauty, youthfulness
  24. Attitude Inoculation
    Making people immune to persuasion by exposing them to small doses of the arguments against their position
  25. Reactance Theory
    When people feel their freedom to perform a certain behavior is threatened, they are motivated to perform that behavior.
  26. Theory of Planned Behavior
    The idea that the best predictors of a persons planned, deliberate behaviors are the persons attitudes toward specific behaviors, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control
  27. Subjective Norms of Planned Behavior
    Beliefs about how others (people who they care about) will view the behavior in question
  28. Perceived Behavioral Control of Planned Behavior
    Perception of how easy it is to change/control behavior in question
  29. Conformity
    A change in ones behavior due to the real of imagined influence of other people.
  30. Informational Social Influence
    • We have a need to know what is the right way to act.
    •    - Asking or watching others as a source of          information
    • Implication - We assume other peoples interpretations of a situation is more correct than ours
  31. Autokinetic Effect - Sherif 1936
    Alone in a dark room, p's estimated how far a light 15 feet away had moved. Even though the light did not move the autokinetic effect caused the illusion of motion. Days later, the participants did it again, with other people who reached a common estimate.
  32. Private Acceptance Vs. Public Compliance
    • Private Acceptance - A genuine belief that the behavior/attitudes of others is right
    • Public Compliance - Conforming without necessarily believing in what we do/say
  33. Contagin
    The rapid spread of emotions or behaviors through a crowd.
  34. Mass Psychogenic Illness
    The occurrence, in a group of people, of similar physical symptoms with no known physical cause
  35. When Will People Conform to Informational Social Influence?
    • When the situation is ambiguous or is a crisis
    • When other peoples are experts
    • When the outcome is important
  36. Normative Social Influence
    • The need to be accepted
    • The influence that leads us to conform in order to be liked and accepted.
    • Results in public compliance
    • Not necessarily private acceptance
  37. Asch's Line Judgment Studies
    You know this just no description
  38. Sherif and Asch
    • Sherif:
    • - Ambiguous stimuli, conformity occurred via private acceptance. "Need to know what's right"
    • Asch
    • - Unambiguous stimuli, conformity occurred via public compliance. "Need to be accepted"
  39. Social Impact Theory
    • The idea that conforming to social influence depends on:
    • - Strength (importance of group to person)
    • - Immediacy (Closeness in time and space)
    • - Number of people in the group
  40. Stanley Milgram - Obedience to Authority
    Shocking experiment
  41. To Resist Informational Social Influence
    • Ask Questions like:
    • Do other people know more about what is going on than I do?
    • Do the actions of other people or experts seen sensible?
Card Set
Psych Test 2 2016
Psych Test 2 2016