Ways to Reduce Dissonance
- Change Behavior
- Justify behavior by changing one of the dissonant cognitions
- Justify behavior by adding new cognitions
- Bolster the self-concept.
- Reducing dissonance by adding a cognition about other positive attributes that don't have to be related
- The tendency to overestimate the intensify and duration of our emotional reactions to future negative events.
- It happens when we underestimate how good we are at getting over it
Post Decision Dissonance
- Dissonance aroused after making a decision
- We think of negative aspects of what we chose and positive aspects of what we rejected.
- Like buyers remorse
Justifying Your Efforts
People may interpret ambiguities in a positive way when it helps to justify effort
Festinger and Carlsmith
- Students were payed $20 or $1 and were told to lie.
- Those who were payed $20 rated the task as dull and boring and the money was sufficient justification for lying
- Those who were payed $1 rated the task as more enjoyable
When we act cruel, we resolve dissonance by blaming the victim
Justifying Acts of Kindness
Dissonance Theory predicts that when we dislike someone, if we do them a favor, we will like them more
- Who said what to whom:
- Who - The source of the communication
- What - The nature of the communication
- Whom - The nature of the audience
Cialdini's 6 Universal Principles of Persuasion
- Social Proof
People feel obligated to return favors
Commitment and Consistency
We are motivated to act consistently, so when we commit to something, we;re likely to stick with it
Safety in numbers. Especially in the case of similar others.
More influenced by people with like similar others, familiar, and ingratiation
We feel a sense of obligation to people that we perceive to be in positions of authority
We are more attracted to things that appear to have limited availability
Routes to Persuasion
- Central Route
- Peripheral Route
Central Route to Persuasion
When people are motivated and have the ability to pay attention to the arguments in the communication.
Peripheral Route to Persuasion
When people do not pay attention to the arguments but are instead swayed by surface characteristics
Motivation to Pay Attention to the Argument
- Personal relevance of the topic: More relevant = more attention
- Need for Cognition: The extent to which people engage in and enjoy effortful cognitive activities
- Ability to Pay attention: When not able to pay attention we are swayed more by peripheral cues
Fear Arousing Communications
Persuasive messages that attempt to change peoples attitudes by arousing their fears.
Emotions as a Heuristic
- We often use "How do I feel about it?" as a heuristic
- Problem: Can make mistakes about what is causing our mood and therefore we can make a bad decision
Utility Vs Emotion
- Utility - Price, reliability, efficiency
- Emotion - Sex, beauty, youthfulness
Making people immune to persuasion by exposing them to small doses of the arguments against their position
When people feel their freedom to perform a certain behavior is threatened, they are motivated to perform that behavior.
Theory of Planned Behavior
The idea that the best predictors of a persons planned, deliberate behaviors are the persons attitudes toward specific behaviors, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control
Subjective Norms of Planned Behavior
Beliefs about how others (people who they care about) will view the behavior in question
Perceived Behavioral Control of Planned Behavior
Perception of how easy it is to change/control behavior in question
A change in ones behavior due to the real of imagined influence of other people.
Informational Social Influence
- We have a need to know what is the right way to act.
- - Asking or watching others as a source of information
- Implication - We assume other peoples interpretations of a situation is more correct than ours
Autokinetic Effect - Sherif 1936
Alone in a dark room, p's estimated how far a light 15 feet away had moved. Even though the light did not move the autokinetic effect caused the illusion of motion. Days later, the participants did it again, with other people who reached a common estimate.
Private Acceptance Vs. Public Compliance
- Private Acceptance - A genuine belief that the behavior/attitudes of others is right
- Public Compliance - Conforming without necessarily believing in what we do/say
The rapid spread of emotions or behaviors through a crowd.
Mass Psychogenic Illness
The occurrence, in a group of people, of similar physical symptoms with no known physical cause
When Will People Conform to Informational Social Influence?
- When the situation is ambiguous or is a crisis
- When other peoples are experts
- When the outcome is important
Normative Social Influence
- The need to be accepted
- The influence that leads us to conform in order to be liked and accepted.
- Results in public compliance
- Not necessarily private acceptance
Asch's Line Judgment Studies
You know this just no description
Sherif and Asch
- - Ambiguous stimuli, conformity occurred via private acceptance. "Need to know what's right"
- - Unambiguous stimuli, conformity occurred via public compliance. "Need to be accepted"
Social Impact Theory
- The idea that conforming to social influence depends on:
- - Strength (importance of group to person)
- - Immediacy (Closeness in time and space)
- - Number of people in the group
Stanley Milgram - Obedience to Authority
To Resist Informational Social Influence
- Ask Questions like:
- Do other people know more about what is going on than I do?
- Do the actions of other people or experts seen sensible?