Project Management

  1. Accept
    Responding to risk by doing nothing.
  2. Addendum, construction document
    Corrections or revisions made to construction documents after they are sent to bidders but before bidders have officially responded.
  3. Adjacency diagram
    A diagram documenting critical physical proximities of organizational groups, equipment, or support functions.
  4. AIA Contract Documents
    A set of standard contract forms produced by the American Institute of Architects (AIA) for design and construction contracts including the contract administration process. They are generally accepted as fair documents for all parties involved.
  5. Architectural drawings/ Engineering drawings
    A set of technical drawings of a building or engineered item categorized by building trade (e.g., electrical, plumbing) used by architects or engineers to express a design proposal and enable a contractor to proceed with construction.
  6. Architectural scale/ Engineering Scale
    A measurement device used to show how to measure scaled dimensions on scale drawings.
  7. Assignable area
    The portion of a floor or building used to house personnel, furniture and equipment.
  8. Authorization to proceed
    A document issued to initiate a project and commence construction.
  9. Avoid
    Responding to risk by clarifying or changing plans to omit the risk.
  10. Backward pass scheduling
    A scheduling technique that begins with a fixed completion date and arranges necessary tasks in order to allow enough time to complete all the project tasks.
  11. Barrier free design
    A facility design that employs multiple design considerations to allow the facility to be fully accessible by persons with disabilities.
  12. Bay
    An area whose boundaries are generally defined by space between four columns (one at each corner).
  13. Bid bond
    A bond or cashier’s check that bidders provide to customers along with a bid for a capital project to prove that the bid is in earnest and the firm has sufficient capital resources and will provide a performance bond if the bid is chosen.
  14. Blocking plan
    Illustration of how multiple groups or departments will fit onto a given floor of a building.
  15. Bond
    A certificate that promises to pay the holder a specified amount of money at some future date.
  16. Bubble diagram
    An adjacency diagram that illustrates primary and secondary adjacencies between major work groups or departments.
  17. Budget at completion
    The planned final cost of a task/project.
  18. Budget variance
    The difference between the budget at completion and estimate at completion.
  19. Build out
    a) A general term referring to the execution phase of a design and construction project including construction, installation of equipment, and connection of utilities;

    b) The new construction or reconfiguration performed on a tenant’s interior space.
  20. Building information modeling (BIM)
    A modeling process and technology for producing comprehensive, measurable, three-dimensional virtual models of buildings to aid in construction and all later phases of a facility’s life cycle.
  21. Building standard
    Owner/landlord determined baseline for type and quality of materials and finishes to be used in their building and provided as part of base rent paid by the tenant (usually stipulated as an allowance per square meter (square foot)).
  22. Building standard finishes
    Finishes provided periodically by a landlord to a tenant as part of the tenant’s base rent.
  23. Build-to-suit
    A form of delayed ownership for real estate in which an organization has the developer retain ownership until the construction project is complete and the facility is ready for occupancy.
  24. Capital
    The amount of money in circulation, the speed with which money circulates or is redistributed throughout the economy, and its price and availability.
  25. Certificate of insurance
    A document from the insurance company that verifies insurance coverage for contractors on larger jobs.
  26. Certificate of occupancy/Certificate of beneficial occupancy
    A formal document often required by the local building codes as the final step to closeout of construction to allow for occupancy of the facility.
  27. Change order
    The written document signed by the contractor, designer and owner that allows for changes involving cost and time.
  28. Churn
    The amount of movement and relocation of occupants within an organization within a specified period. It is the ratio of the number of employees moved annually compared to the total number of employees in an organization.
  29. Circulation factor
    A percentage added to work space to allow for circulation patterns of persons or goods in usable space.
  30. Commissioning
    The process of evaluating, verifying, and documenting the performance of facility systems, subsystems, components, operations (and maintenance procedures) to assure that they function to the intent of the design and efficiently as a system.
  31. Common area/Common support area/Building core/Service Area
    Area with common access to all users within a gross space (e.g., public corridors, primary circulation, lobbies, rest rooms, mechanical or utility rooms, and vestibules
  32. Common area factor (rentable/usable ratio)/Core factor/Loss factor/Loss factor area
    The factor used to determine a tenant’s pro rata share of the common area.
  33. Completion date
    A clearly defined date when the project is 100 percent complete including all of the punch list items.
  34. Computer aided design and drafting (CAD)
    Computerized drafting software that can manage space, furniture, and equipment, as well as produce drawings.
  35. Computer assisted facility management (CAFM)
    A software system that provides web-based, real-time access to vital information such as a statistics on holdings, space utilization, lease information and best practices; capabilities for work order processing, preventive maintenance records, move management, emergency planning, etc. It commonly contains CAD, work management, project management, and asset management systems.
  36. Construction agreement
    A written contract between an owner and the general contractor detailing the terms to which the parties agree. The agreement details the deliverable (what is to be built), the compensation, the timeframe, and other factors typical of a legally binding contract.
  37. Construction drawing
    Scaled architectural or engineering drawings that include notations on the work required and the materials to be used, showing how to proceed with construction.
  38. Contract
    A written or oral agreement that creates an obligation between two or more parties and defines the details of that obligation.
  39. Contract time
    The period of time set forth for completion of construction.
  40. Core and service area/Common area/Common support area/Core Area
    The area with common access (or benefit) to all users within a gross space (e.g., public corridors, rest rooms, mechanical or utility rooms, and vestibules).
  41. Core and service area factor (rentable/usable ratio)
    The factor used to determine a tenant’s pro rata share of the core and service area.
  42. Cost variance
    The amount of money a task is over or under budget.
  43. Cover letter/Insurance binder
    Temporary evidence of insurance.
  44. Critical path
    The longest set of sequential tasks in a project, which is the shortest possible planned project duration.
  45. Critical path scheduling
    A scheduling technique that is based on identifying predecessors and timeframes. Each process that requires a previous process to be completed before the new one can begin is entered in a time schedule so that the minimum time for overall project completion can be determined.
  46. Dead end corridor
    A corridor with only one way in or out.
  47. Demising wall
    A wall between one tenant’s area and another as well as a wall between tenant areas and public corridors.
  48. Design intent drawings
    Scaled drawings that form the basis of construction drawings by showing where all construction elements are to be located but omitting engineering calculations. They can be used in variance comparisons with as-built drawings.
  49. Direct negotiation
    A method for awarding a contract where a single contractor or a small group of selected bidders is subject to negotiation to award the contract.
  50. Elevations
    Drawings of a structure from a single perspective showing entire-structure flat plane projections of all vertical floors and features facing in the given direction.
  51. Errors and omissions insurance
    Insurance purchased by design professionals to transfer to the insurer the cost of liability claims related to errors or omissions in design and construction documents.
  52. Estimate at completion
    A forecast of the final cost of a task/project using the most current data.
  53. Fast tracking
    A process of concurrently performing as many project tasks or phases as feasible to minimize total project time.
  54. Floor plate
    A common term for floor size or outline of overall size, shape, features of a building basic floor plan/building basic shell plan.
  55. Forward pass scheduling
    A scheduling technique that takes tasks in sequential order in order to arrive at a realistic and reasonable completion date.
  56. General and specific terms and conditions
    A blanket term in contract language to refer to all of the general boilerplate terms and conditions incorporated by reference to a contract as well as the specific terms and conditions relating to the specific project. Specific terms and conditions can include site access restrictions and security requirements.
  57. General contractor
    The traditional builder who engages in the complete on-site management of the actual construction project. General contractors perform the work by contracting on their own behalf with subcontractors and suppliers.
  58. Glass line/Window line
    A vertical plane indicating the location of the glass on a given wall of the building exterior used as a measurement point for various space measurement systems.
  59. Grade
    A method of classifying materials or deliverables that have the same functional use but differences in technical features or perceived value.
  60. Gross area
    The sum of the floor areas on all levels of a building that are totally enclosed within the building envelope. (Measured to the outside face of exterior walls.)
  61. Hard costs
    Cost for actual moving services, supplies and trucking expenses; costs for move materials, freight elevator and loading dock usage; special security guard services during the course of a move; new stationery, business cards, move notices, etc. Other move costs that might be included are design, food service, graphics, furniture, voice/data costs, etc.
  62. Holdback
    A percentage of a contract price that an owner or contractor retains or percentage of a loan that a lender retains until the project is finished or all project bills are paid.
  63. Incentives
    Contractually specified monetary inducements linked to specific performance measurements.
  64. Indemnification
    A clause stating that the owner (officers, directors, employees, etc.) is "held harmless" from any damages or claims resulting from the construction project
  65. Inspection
    The detection and removal of flaws in deliverables at key milestones or at completion
  66. Integrated project delivery
    An Integrated project delivery technique that focuses on early collaboration and data sharing to maximize the final value for the owner in the form of the completed building.
  67. Internal rate of return (IRR)
    The return on investment a company typically realizes (or targets to realize) based on its past track record regarding asset investments. It is the interest rate at which lifetime dollar savings equal lifetime dollar costs, after the time value of money is taken into account.
  68. Key plan
    Small-scale floor plans incorporated into a corner of construction drawings to give a geographic orientation of the location of the construction project
  69. Lead time
    The delay between when materials or services are requested and when they are available at the right time and place.
  70. Letter of intent
    A document issued by the owner to the contractor to allow work to begin prior to execution of the formal contract.
  71. Liability insurance
    Insurance that protects the insured against lawsuits brought in response to supposed acts of negligence that result in injury or loss of property to the public.
  72. Licensing
    a) permission to execute a project as granted by local authorities;

    b) the act of granting a license that is mandatory for practicing a profession or service in a specific region.
  73. Life cycle cost (LCC)
    The total cost of acquisition, operation, maintenance, and support of an item throughout its useful life, and including the cost of removal.
  74. Limit of retention/retainage
    The longest time period in which money can be held back for paying a contractor for rendered services to ensure all sub-contractors have been paid.
  75. Liquidated damages
    An amount of damages on a daily basis specified in the contract. This amount will be assessed against the contractor for each day beyond the contract completion date that the project remains uncompleted.
  76. Loading capacity
    A weight per square meter (square foot) measurement in buildings indicating the capacity for a building structure (usually flooring systems) to sustain weight.
  77. Maintenance period
    The time period in which the contractor provides routine maintenance services for a deliverable as part of the contract.
  78. Material lien
    A secured interest in a property to protect against defaults in payments to suppliers of materials used to improve said property.
  79. Measuring space
    Agreed upon methods for measuring the space of a building such as when determining the total square meters (feet) to be charged as part of a lease.
  80. Mechanics lien
    A claim on a property held by a supplier of materials or labor for nonpayment of a debt.
  81. MEP
    Refers to mechanical, electrical and plumbing.
  82. Millwork
    Construction for custom-made facility furniture including cabinetry, special wood trim, or shelves.
  83. Mitigate
    Adopt or apply preventive measures to reduce probability and/or severity of identified risks.
  84. Nonconforming use
    A use of land that does not conform to the current land use controls imposed by the government.
  85. Non-disclosure agreement
    A legally enforceable contract or clause that requires the contracted resource to treat specified intellectual property as proprietary and not share it with others.
  86. Open tender/bidding/Competitive bidding
    The process where multiple contractors are invited to tender/bid on a project so that the owner can maximize market pricing and achieve the desired project at the lowest possible cost.
  87. Partition
    Inside floor-to-ceiling structures or wall assemblies that enclose a space. Partitions can be movable or removable.
  88. Payback period
    The length of time it will take to recoup an initial investment cost.
  89. Payment bond
    A bond issued by an insurance company or bank on behalf of a general contractor that guarantees payment to all subcontractors and material suppliers if work is completed within the referenced contract’s set terms and conditions or in the event of default the surety will make the required payments so the project will be free of any liens at completion.
  90. Penalties
    Contractually specified fines linked to specific performance measures.
  91. Performance bond
    A bond issued by an insurance company or bank on behalf of a contractor that guarantees the contractor will perform the contract or in the event of default the surety (party assuming the debt obligation) will either complete the contract or pay monetary damages up to the bond limit.
  92. Performance-based contracting
    The method of contracting which entails structuring all aspects of an acquisition process around the results of work to be performed as opposed to how the work is to be performed. It emphasizes objective, measurable performance requirements and quality standards in developing scope/statements of work, selecting contractors, determining contract incentives, and performance of contract administration.
  93. Plans
    The anticipated use of resources, timelines, and the sequence of tasks necessary to accomplish the goals of a project.
  94. Post-occupancy evaluations (POEs)
    Surveys taken following project completion to assess the occupants’ level of satisfaction with the various aspects of the new working environment, as well as to check the performance against specifications of the major systems.
  95. Prescriptive-based contracting
    A method of contracting that entails specifying how the work is to be performed and the materials that are to be used, as well as the results and objectives to be achieved at each milestone.
  96. Prevention
    The detection and removal of process flaws during execution.
  97. Primary circulation
    The portion of the building that is public corridor or lobby, or required for access by all occupants on a floor to stairs, elevators, rest rooms and/or building entrances.
  98. Program evaluation and review technique (PERT)
    A critical path scheduling model that incorporates the main concepts and techniques of the critical path method but adds a probabilistic method of estimating duration and cost for each task
  99. Programming
    The process that defines the detailed project requirements of the end user that are needed to meet the project objectives and general project requirements
  100. Progress payment
    Payment made for completion of work approved by the owner at a given project milestone.
  101. Project
    Specific units of work that when completed produce an outcome or achieve an objective.
  102. Project charter/Capital project justification/Project request form/Project documentation
    A document used to justify and allow formal authorization of a project and release funds, prove it has a viable business case, list project requirements, link the project to strategy, and name persons responsible for the project including the project manager.
  103. Project management
    The coordination of people, funds and resources, tasks, and approvals required to accomplish an objective.
  104. Project objectives statement/Initial project scope/Project definition document/Project description document
    A document used to state what the project will (and will not) accomplish in terms of its scope and deliverables. It includes a high-level schedule, budget, and set quality standards.
  105. Project planning
    The process of organizing the tasks, resources, and people required to accomplish a unit of work.
  106. Project selection
    A method of listing and ranking potential projects so that a project can be selected and the choice validated as the best possible expenditure of resources over a given time period.
  107. Punch list/Snagging list
    A list of deficiencies, incomplete, or unacceptable work items compiled by the project manager, architect, engineers, and/or designers during final inspection of the project.
  108. Quality
    Fitness for intended use.
  109. Quality control
    A product-oriented set of measurement and analysis tools used to monitor project results and deliverables. It determines if results and deliverables comply with quality standards and seeks to discover the root causes of quality issues.
  110. Quick ship
    A method used by furniture suppliers to produce and ship products from the factory soon after an order has been placed.
  111. Raceway
    Enclosed, accessible channels within system furniture panels for communications, data, and power cabling.
  112. Raw space/Shell space
    A completed building shell or envelope often intended for subsequent tenant improvement that lacks final HVAC connections, electrical outlets, interior walls, or finish materials.
  113. Rentable area
    The gross area minus exterior walls, major vertical penetrations and interior parking spaces.
  114. Risk
    The potential for the realization of the unwanted, negative consequences of an event. It is the product of conditional probability of an event and the event outcomes.
  115. Scale drawings
    Drawings that are set to a proportional but smaller size than the actual objects being represented as defined by a supplied key or method of conversion.
  116. Schedule variance
    The amount of time that a task is over or under scheduled time.
  117. Schematic plans
    Scale drawings that include all basic design components of a space or facility such as circulation corridors, partitions, and work space areas, but omit construction details and dimensions.
  118. Scope creep
    An extension of the objective(s) of the project by external influences, resulting in undesirable and unplanned changes to a project’s time, cost, and/or quality
  119. Scope
    The extent of work or tasks to be done to produce a project’s deliverables (products or services).
  120. Secondary circulation
    The portion of a building required for access to some subdivision of space (whether bounded by walls or not) that is not defined as primary circulation. (i.e. corridors between workstations.)
  121. Shell plan/Conceptual design plans
    Scale drawings of a building’s exterior walls and windows, permanent partitions, columns, and service functions.
  122. Shop drawings
    Drawings prepared by the contractor and/or subcontractors that show the specific proposed method for fabricating and erecting in order to achieve the end result outlined in the contract drawings.
  123. Slab to slab
    The distance between floors of a building as measured from the top of the concrete floor slab to the bottom of the concrete ceiling slab; often used to describe walls that span the entire distance.
  124. Slack/Float
    Leeway allowed for starting or ending noncritical tasks sooner or later without affecting the overall schedule.
  125. Soft costs
    Internal costs, such as salary/time of employees involved in managing the move; downtime and loss of productivity of employees being moved.
  126. Space programming
    To determine user needs for amount and configuration/features of physical space based on user role or business unit/department needs.
  127. Specification
    A description of the essential technical requirements for items (hardware and software), materials, and processes that includes verification criteria for determining whether the requirements are met.
  128. Stack plan
    A vertical section drawn through a building showing which organizational groups occupy which floors.
  129. Statement of requirements/Project requirements program
    A document that provides the interface between the customer (end user) and the people who are responsible for transforming space into a productive work environment (design professionals).
  130. Statement of Work (SOW)
    A listing of the specific tasks the supplier is to perform.
  131. Substantial completion/Practical completion
    A clearly defined checkpoint in the time of construction where the building or renovated space is ready for occupancy with only minor punch list items to be completed.
  132. Subtask
    A division of a task into units that are cohesive and relatively independent from the other subtasks within a given task.
  133. Success criteria
    The combination of conditions that must be met or satisfied for a project, plan, or task to be considered a success.
  134. Swing space
    Space available to temporarily house functions/departments/
  135. Systems
    A set of interrelated, interdependent elements with behavioral patterns that interact with and affect the performance and behavior of the other elements.
  136. Systems furniture
    Furniture that is modularly designed to be assembled in one or more possible configurations. Also called workstations.
  137. Activity/Task
    A function to be performed that always consumes time and may consume resources.
  138. Tenant improvement (TI) allowance/Tenant finish allowance
    Funds set aside by a landlord in accordance with a building standard for use by a tenant to make the space suitable for occupancy. The size of the allowance can vary by the duration of the lease
  139. Tenant improvement (TI) building standards
    Standard building materials and qualities as identified by the landlord that are to be provided as part of the base rent to the tenant to improve tenant premises.
  140. Test fit
    A scale drawing showing a proposed layout of space for business units or departments to determine if the space can adequately address space requirements.
  141. Transfer
    Responding to risk by moving the financial or resource effects of a risk to a third party (e.g., contractor or insurance).
  142. Usable area
    The portion of a building or floor available for occupants. In leased space, this is the area not shared with other tenants.
  143. Value engineering
    A systematic approach to assessing and analyzing the user's requirements of a new asset, and ensuring that those requirements are met, but not exceeded.
  144. Warranty period
    The time period in which a promise or guarantee of quality workmanship or deliverable quality is enforceable
  145. WBS dictionary
    A document that itemizes and describes work packages and includes details such as dependencies.
  146. Work
    The construction, equipment, and services described in the construction documents to be provided by the contractor
  147. Work breakdown structure (WBS)
    A graphical method of dividing a project’s deliverables and work into manageable or logical subdivisions so the project scope can be defined and the required work can be understood and assigned.
  148. Work letter/Building standard work letter
    A document that includes building standards plus any additional items to be paid for by the landlord or by the tenant; the letter specifics who is responsible for each item.
  149. Work package
    A division of a subtask into the smallest size unit of work defined in a WBS.
  150. Workstation
    Any space, including furniture and equipment, designated for accomplishing a work function.
Card Set
Project Management
Flash Cards for the Project Management Course of the FMP