Birkland Chp 7 - Policies and Policy Types

  1. Policy
    A statement by the government of what it intends to do or not to do such as a law, regulation, ruling, decision, or order, or a combination of these. The lack of statements can also be policy.
  2. Constitutional Policy
    • Type of policy codification.
    • Codified in the federal or state constitutions.
    • Highly visible at the federal level; the Constitution has been edited very few times. At the state level, it may be more easily amended.
  3. Statutory Policy
    • Type of policy codification.
    • Codified United States Code; Statutes at Large
    • Highly visible
  4. Regulatory Policy
    • Type of policy codification.
    • Codified through the Federal Register, Code of Federal Regulations
    • Moderately visible
  5. Formal Record through SOP as Policy
    • Type of policy codification.
    • Codified through operating procedure manuals
    • Low visibility as SOPs are often only internally published.
  6. Patterned Behavior by Street Level Bureaucrats as Policy
    • Type of policy codification.
    • Codified through no formal means; evidence of a policy may appear in some records
    • Low visibility because there are behavior changes among actors.
  7. Subtle Changes in cognition and emphasis of problems as Policy
    • Type of policy codification.
    • Codified through no formal means; revealed through behaviors of street level bureaucrats.
  8. Federal Register
    The daily journal of federal rule-making and other administrative activity. Published here before codified in CFR.
  9. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)
    The compilation of all federal regulations. First published in the Federal Register, public comment is taken into account before codified in the code.
  10. Street Level Bureaucrat
    A term to describe the actors as the low end of the implementation chain such as teachers, police officers, and social workers, who implement policies at the point of contact with the policy's target population.
  11. Typology
    A system for categorizing things based on similar characteristics, and for differentiating things with different characteristics. A policy typology is a way of organizing a broad range of public policies into a system of policy types to aid in understanding and analysis.
  12. Distributive policy
    • Lowi's Policy Type
    • A policy that takes a resource from a broad group of people and gives the resource to a narrower group of people; an example is pork barrel policies that send money to particular districts for local programs. Ex farm subsidies, local infrastructure projects
  13. Interest group liberalism
    The dominant form of politics in the United States in which government seeks to accommodate a wide range or relatively narrow interests, rather than attempting to weigh interests against each other and choose to support some interests more than others.
  14. Competitive Regulatory
    • Lowi's Policy Type
    • Designed to limit the provision of goods and services to one or a few designated deliverers who are chosen from a larger number of competing potential deliverers. The licensing of various professions, and of radio and TV stations, are examples of such policies.
  15. Protective Regulatory Policy
    • Lowi's Policy Type
    • A policy that seeks to protect the public and consumers from market problems such as deceptive advertising faulty products, or negative externalities. Ex pollution
  16. Redistributive Policy
    • Lowi's Policy Type
    • This is a policy that takes or seems to take a resource from one identifiable group and gives a benefit to another readily identifiable group. Such policies are the most controversial and contentious.
  17. Cost-Benefit Analysis
    Sometimes called cost-benefit-risk analysis, this policy analysis technique seeks to understand the cost of a course of action and its benefits. When risk is introduced the risk of something bad happening is also taken into account.
  18. Substantive Policy
    A policy that explains how the government will go about its policy goals in a particular area. Contrast with symbolic policy and procedural policy.
  19. Procedural Policy
    A policy that determines how the government's procedures - the way it goes about its work - are to be governed. The Administrative Procedures Act is an example of a procedural policy; such policies can have a substantive influence on policies.
  20. Administrative Procedures Act
    Requires regulatory agencies to follow particular procedures in rule-making such as public notice of new rules public comment periods publication of rule-making activity in the Federal Register and the like.
  21. Symbolic Policy
    A policy that satisfies public demand for statements of principles or values without any resources to support them. The naming of post offices etc. Differences between symbolic and substantive are not always clear.
  22. Private Goods
    Goods that can be provided in the open market without major free riding problems; contrast with public goods.
Card Set
Birkland Chp 7 - Policies and Policy Types
public policy