1. characteristics of nervous tissue
    long intertwining processes; no ECM
  2. characteristics of epithelial tissue
    aggregated polyhedral cells; small amount of ECM
  3. characteristics of muscular tissue
    elongated contractile cells; moderate amounts of ECM
  4. characteristics of connective tissue
    several types of fixed and motile cells; extensive ECM
  5. parenchyma
    tissue compose of the cells responsible for the main functions of an organ
  6. stroma
    supporting tissue
  7. principle functions of epithelial tissue
    • covering, lining, & protection; absorption;
    • secretion; contractility
  8. lamina propria
    found outside the basal lamina in the epithelial layers of internal organs; the layer of connective tissue on which epithelial tissue rests; supports epithelium and binds to underlying layers
  9. papillae
    small evaginations that increase the area of contact between the lamina propria and the epithelium; most common in areas subject to high friction
  10. basal pole of epithelial cell
    the side of the epithelial cell that faces toward the connective tissue
  11. apical pole of epithelial cell
    the side of the epithelia opposite the basal pole
  12. lateral sides of epithelial cell
    intervening sides of an epithelial cell that lie apposed to other cells
  13. basal lamina
    a sheet of felt-like material that lies at the base of epithelial cells
  14. lamina densa
    the electron-dense layer of the basal lamina; made up of network fibrils
  15. dense layer
    another name for the lamina densa
  16. laminae lucida
    """clear layers"" sometimes found on either side of the lamina densa; part of the basal lamina"
  17. clear layers
    another name for the laminae lucida
  18. basement membrane
    formed by the combination of a basal lamina and a reticular lamina; visible under a light microscope
  19. occluding junction
    a type of intercellular junction that serves to prevent the flow of material between cells; found at the most apical part of the cell
  20. adherent junction
    a type of intercellular junction that serves to adhere cells to each other; encircles the cell; mediated by cadherins; involves actin
  21. gap junction
    a type of intercellular junction that allows for communication between cells; mediated by connexons
  22. tight junctions
    also known as zona occludens; occluding junctions
  23. zona occludens
    also known as tight junctions; occluding junctions
  24. cadherins
    transmembrane glycoproteins that enable adhesion between cells in the presence of calcium
  25. zona adherens
    also known as adherent junction
  26. hemidesmosomes
    adhesive structures that bind the epithelial cell to the basal lamina; resemble half of a desmosome except that they contain integrins instead of cadherins as adhesive proteins
  27. desmosome
    "a type of intercellular junction that serves to adhere cells to each other; does NOT encircle the cell; disk-shaped; utilizes cadherins
  28. macula adherens
    also known as a desmosome
  29. connexins
    dumbell-shaped protein subunits of connexons; six connexins form a connexon
  30. connexons
    abutting particles of a gap junction; composed of connexins
  31. microvilli
    actin-based, non-motile cellular protrusions that increase the surface area of a cell
  32. stereocilia
    actin-based, non-motile cellular protrusions; similar to microvilli but larger; differ from actual cilia in their composition and lack of motility
  33. cilia
    motile cellular protrusions; powered by dynein or other motor proteins; composed of microtubules; larger than microvilli; propel fluid
  34. simple epithelia
    contain only one layer of cells
  35. stratified epithelia
    contain more than one layer of cells
  36. simple columnular epithelia
    epithelial cells that are taller than they are wide; have oblong nuclei; involved in absorption and processing
  37. simple cuboidal epithelia
    epithelial cells that are roughly as tall as they are wide; have circular nuclei; often have many mitochondria for active transport; usually involved in secretion and absorption
  38. pseudostratified columnular epithelia
    simple epithelial cells that appear stratified due to nuclei of different heights; almost exclusively found in the large airways of the respiratory tract
  39. stratified squamous epithelia
    line moist tissues that are subject to abrasion
  40. stratified cuboidal epithelia
    found in sweat and salivary glands; provides a lining that is more robust than simple stratified epithelium; involved in protection and secretion
  41. transitional epithelia
    "found in the mammalian urinary tract; characterized by dome-like ""umbrella"" cells; protect against potentially cytotoxic effects of urine"
  42. stratified squamous keratinized epithelia
    found in skin; provides a barrier to abrasion and dessication
  43. terminal web
    a cytoskeletal element composed of actin filaments; found at the apical side of the cell
  44. simple squamous epithelia
    thin, flat layer of epithelial cells; typically line vessels and cavities; usually involved in selective diffusion
Card Set
ETC - Epethelial Tissue