Anthro 101 midterm section 2

  1. what kind of animal are we?
    • One of over 200 species of primates.
    • Depends on where people draw the line.
    • Lots of range for non human primates

    • Most Non-human primates found in warm tropical areas
    • Exception: Macaque’s in Japan only other species to go into cold climate
    • Evolved from primitive mammals
    • First primitive primates 65 mill years ago: end of Cretaceous period
  2. humans have what type of locomotion
    obligate bipeds
  3. Differences between primates and other mammals

    (ON EXAM)
    • 1. Primates: generalized
    • Adapted to wide range of environments
    • Resulted in skeletal structures used for multiple things (food and locomotion)

    • 2) features do narrow range of activities
    • One function skeletal structure
    • Horse hoof- one digit Function only locomotion for horses
    • Primates 5 digits, many functions ex. prosimions primitive mammal trait )

    • 3) Primates: better vision
    • Stereoscopic (depth perception)
    • Allows to see quality of food
    • Diurnal (color vision)
    • Most nocturnal species don’t see color Necessary to see poisonous food and ripeness or rawness )
    • 4) Primates: Reduced senses
    • Auditory (sound) – don’t hear so well
    • Olfactory (reduced snout) – don’t smell very well )
    • 5) Primates: (teeth) Dentition:
    • heterodonts [many different teeth] generalized for eating many foods
    • (homodont = dolphin)
    • 6) Primates: Generalized locomotion
    • (among the genera (genuses represented by primates)
    • most primate species can do multiple types of locomotions
    • humans are obligate bipeds
  4. Positional behavior

    and types of positional behavior for primates
    Posture and Locomotion (how it moves)

    • quadrupedal
    • -arboreal: in the trees run on branches Longer hind limbs then forelimbs
    • -terrestrial: arms/legs same length Keeps backbone parallel to the ground

    • Clinging and Leaping
    • -Long arms for grabbing

    • Suspensory
    • ex. gibbons
    • Brachiation – swing from tree branches

    • Bipedal
    • -Humans are the only obligate biped
  5. Differences between primates and humans
    Prehensility Only new world monkeys have prehensile tails ex. black howler monkey All primates have dermal ridges; humans have closer dermal ridges, which has to do with how sensitive our fingers are Opposable digits – related to prehensility spider monkey does not have opposable digit on front leg Nails, no claws Most primates have nails Tarsier has little claws Sensitive tactile digits ) Altricial young (born helpless) typically primates will have one offspring at a time Long gestation periods; carrying in utero Primates have longest period of dependency among mammals Human gest – 9 age at reproduction 15 Chimp 8 - age at 12 A lot of paretnal investment for primate parents ) Highly intelligent humans and chimps have largest brain relative to body size the convolution of brains surface increases surface human brain is about 1350 cc; chimp is 400 cc Humans have big neocortex (thinking part of brain) ) Varied social organization (handout on sakai that diagrams social organization for different groups of primates) Monogamous – ex. gibbons, samangs Uni-male groups – Gorillas Uni-female – marmasets + tamarines Multifemale /multimale – baboons, macaques, chimps
  6. primate taxonomy: 

    2 major suborders
    • Strepsirhini (Prosimii) – wet noses
    • “before apes”
    • Wet nose enhances sense of smell
    • Rhin = nose
    • Closer to primitive mammal

    Haplorhini – dry noses (if dog has dry nose then they are not feeling well)
  7. Look at page 155 in text memorize superfamily and have basic understanding of chart Need to know genetic order of humans from chart
  8. Prosimians
    • Strepsirhines with wet noses
    • Lemurs (very energetic) (all on Madagascar/no other primates on madagascar) [80 different species]
    • Loris (really slow) [16 species]
    • Galago senegalensis (extremely energetic) ( in africa, not in asia)
    • Bush babies All have wet noses
Card Set
Anthro 101 midterm section 2