What is diabetes Type I
- (insulin dependant)
- caused by genetics
- complete lack of insulin glucose cannot enter cells to be used as energy
- use insulin to treat
What is Diabetes Type II
- caused by family history of being overweight
- lack of insulin receptors on cells glucose cannot enter cells to be used as energy
- diet and exercise to treat
What is a glucometer and how do you use it
- glucometer measures glucose (sugar can help us identify diabetes or keep disease in check).
- you calibrate the glucometer by inserting a test strip the way the arrow points you wipe the first bit of blood off then gently squeeze the finger or new drop then place the end of the strip so it wicks up the blood
- a count down appears as the glucometer reads the test strip with the blood then a reading appears
If a client asks you why blood pressure is important what would you say
- healthy blood pressure = 120/80
- It’s the force exerted by the blood on the blood vessels. It’s critical for proper gas exchange between the capillaries and the tissue fluid.
- It can tell us if the blood is flowing through the arteries smoothly or if there are obstructions, which could lead to health problems.
- It’s a simple way to test someones overall general health
explain in sentence form the blood pressure reading of 134/76
The pressure of the blood on the vessel walls when the heart is contracting is 134 milimeters of mercury and the pressure of the blood on the vessel walls when the heart is filling (relaxing) is 76 milimeters of mercury
What are the eight steps in taking auscultatory Blood pressure
- 1- have the person sit with their feet flat on the floor and one arm extended across a table with the palm up. Make sure that they remove all jackets and long sleeve shirts
- (locate the pulse in the radial or brachial artery, pump the cuff up until you can’t feel the pulse anymore, then when you take the blood pressure pump the cuff up 20 milimeters above the number you got)
- 2- using your index and middle fingers, locate the brachial pulse and mark it with an X
- 3- wrap the cuff snugly around the upper arm (directly on skin) at the heart level so that the bottom is 1 inch above the brachial artery. The arrow should point to the X and the tubing should be at the center of their arm
- 4- put on your stethescope (ear pieces away from you) and place it over the X. Cup the stethescope with your hand by placing your thumb on top of the head of the stethoscope, and fingers underneath their arm
- 5- with your dominant hand turn the knob on the bladder all the way to the left to release any air. and then all the way right
- 6- pump the bladder to 30 mm/Hg above the disappearance of the brachial pulse
- 7- slowly release the air from the bladder (3-5 mm/Hg per second) by turning the knob to the left
- 8- record the first Korotkoff sound as systolic BP and the last as diastolic BP
What are the components of health related fitness,
- muscular endurance
- muscular strength
- cardiorespiratory fitness
- body composition
Describe flexibility as one of the components of health related fitness
the range of motion around a joint
Describe muscular endurance as one of the components of health related fitness
the ability of a muscle to exert submaximal force repeatedly over time
Describe muscular strength as one of the components of health related fitness
the ability of a muscle to exert maximal force against a resistance
Describe cardiorespiratory fitness as one of the components of health related fitness
the ability of the heart and lungs to deliver oxygen to the cells in support of prolonged physical activity
Describe body composition as one of the components of health related fitness
refers to the fat and non-fat components of the body
What is the most common indicator of cardiorespiratory fitness? Explain what this indicator tells us.
- VO2 max – maximum amount of oxygen that the body can use per minute of activity
- stands for the maximum volume (V) of oxygen (o2) in milliters that you can use in one minute, per kilogram of body weight.
Give an example of a task that tests someone’s muscular strength, and explain why this is a good example.
Handgrip dynamometer – because you are doing the most that you can just once
Give an example of a task that tests someone’s muscular endurance, and explain why this is a good example
sit-ups; push ups; wall sits; because you are doing them for a given period of time as much or as many as you can
When might BMI be a good indicator of one’s disease risk?
if you’re not an athlete and are generally an average person
Why do we take girth measurements as a way to assess disease risk
because it tells us how the fat is distributed in our bodies and we don’t want it around our organs
What is the rationale for using skinfold thickness to assess body fat?
skinfold thickness relies on the assumption that the fat under the skin is proportional to the total body fat
How does BIA work
Bioelectrical impedence measures the resistance of body tissues to the flow of a small, harmless, electrical signal. The proportion of body fat can be calculated because the current flows more easily through the parts of the body that are composed mostly of water than it does through bone fat or air
Why are the body fat standards for women higher than for men
women naturally carry more body fat
How do we assess visual acuity
using a Snellen chart (the chart with all the letters you see at a doctors office)
What does it mean to have 20/40 vision
it means that what the normal eye can see at 40 feet the person can only see at 20 feet
What causes near-sightedness
close objects are seen clearly but distant objects appear blurred. Caused by a steeply curved cornea or elongated eye
What causes Far-sightedness
close objects are blurred and distant objects are clear. Caused by a short eye
How do we assess someone’s hearing?
audiologic tests – selected according to the age of the patient (generally includes a hearing history, physiological procedures, behavioral procedures)
What is one potential cause of hearing loss?
wax blockage, fluid buildup, toxic noise, infections or immune system disorders