1. What is an emotion?
    • A consistent & discrete responses to an event of significance
    • Help direct an appropriate course of action (eg. fight or flight) and are therefore usually associated with particular physiological states (eg. arousal - higher blood pressure/heart rate)
    • Help organise other aspects of cognition (eg. learning/memory, attention)
  2. What is affective neuroscience?
    The study of emotions and their impact on other aspects of cognition
  3. What are the two main spectrums of emotion?
    • Arousal: Sleepy to aroused
    • Affect: Misery to Pleasure
  4. What is the Duchenne smile?
    • A true smile, involving the creases around the eyes 
    • Named after Duchenne, who believed that one's facial expressions coded inner expressions
  5. What are the universal emotions?
    • Anger 
    • Sadness 
    • Fear
    • Contempt 
    • Happiness 
    • Disgust
    • Surprise
    • Embarrassment
  6. How soon can we discern facial expressions, and who struggle with this?
    • Infants as young as 4 months can discriminate static displays of happy, sad, and surprised faces
    • By 4 they can accurately describe dynamic expressions, and
    • By 10 they are about as good as adults, but continue to improve in accuracy and speed in discriminating less intense emotions.
    • Young children with autism show reduced capacity.
  7. Who is this, and what do the numbers correspond to?Image Upload 1
    • Folk
    • 1: Stimulus 
    • 2: Perception 
    • 3: Emotion 
    • 4: Physiological response
  8. Who is this, what are the features of the theory, and what do the numbers correspond to?
    Image Upload 2
    • James-Lange
    • 1: Stimulus 
    • 2: Perception in cerebral cortex 
    • 3: Physiological response 
    • 4: Emotion in the cerebral cortex
    • The brain does not have a system devoted to emotional functions, instead it is one of the functions of the sensory and motor cortices, which may rely on feedback from the body (eg viscera, or facial muscles)
  9. Who is this, what are the features of the theory, and what do the numbers correspond to?
    Image Upload 3
    • Cannon & Bard (1929)
    • 1: Stimulus 
    • 2: Perception
    • 3: Emotion
    • 4: Response control
    • 5: Physiological response 
    • Physiological feedback is too slow, and lesions to hypothalamus induce sham-rage
    • Co-ordinated emotional responses rely on subcortical processing
  10. Who is this, what are the features of the theory, and what do the numbers correspond to?
    Image Upload 4
    • Schachter-Singer (1970’s)
    • 1: Stimulus 
    • 2: Perception 
    • 3: Physiological response 
    • 4: Context 
    • 5: Emotion 
    • Two factor theory - physiological state does not dictate emotions
    • Even with adrenaline (which increases HR/blood pressure), reported emotional state depended on whether the participants knew they had been injected, and the mood of other people in the room
  11. Who is this, what are the features of the theory, and what do the numbers correspond to?
    Image Upload 5
    • LeDoux & Phelps (2000)
    • 1: Sensory processing 
    • 2: LTM (semantic & episodic)
    • 3: Working memory
    • 4: Emotional processing
    • 5: Emotional responses. The arrow coming from this is feedback from muscles in the face etc, but also from action within the brain
  12. Is there a dedicated neural circuit for emotion?
    • Probably 
    • We can tell the difference between fake and genuine smiles right
    • People with cortical lesions can't smile on request, but can in response to emotionally relevant stimuli
    • SO it would seem there are two streams for emotion: volitional (motor cortex, basal ganglia) and autonomic (hypothalamus, amygdala, frontal cortex.)
    • It is suggested that all of these belong to the limbic system, but this view has fallen out of favour, bc as more structures were added, it seemed you'd have to effectively say the whole BRAIN was in the limbic system/subserves emotions
  13. Who is this, what are the features of the theory, and what do the numbers correspond to?
    Image Upload 6
    • Papez Circuit
    • Image Upload 7

    • The Papez circuit has expanded from original definition to include amygdala and part of frontal cortex, because it turns out these have important functions.
    • In general, the “limbic system” concept has limited utility:
    • 1) by its definition of an emotion area we would need to include almost all parts of the brain,
    • 2) many of the areas seem also involved in other brain
    • processes
  14. Why do we think the prefrontal cortex has something to do with emotional processing?
    • Phineas (ffs every time)
    • PFC lesions lead to lower threshold for self-sacrifices (e.g. report as more likely to give up life for someone else)
  15. Why do we think the amygdala has something to do with emotional processing?
    • Removing the temporal lobe leads to loads of strange behaviour in monkeys, including lack of fear
    • Further analysis however, shows that this is mostly due to the destruction of the amygdala.
    • The amygdala is NECESSARY and SUFFICIENT for simple emotional repsonses.
  16. What is the dual route model for the amygdala?
    • the amygdala receives input from two different pathways:
    • The 'quick and dirty' one through the thalamus, and the better, more fine-grained one through the cortex.
    • The 'quick and dirty' input may prime the amygdala for receiving the cortical input.
    • Evidence? Blindness - people who are cortically blind react reliably to emotional stimuli that they can't see --> suggests the amygdala is utilizing non-cortical input (as their lesions are in V1, a cortical area).
    • V1 lesioned people also show better than chance level of guessing emotions of faces they can't perceptually see; especially fear (amygdala, again).
    • BUT Faster processing does not necessarily mean subcortical involvement, there is no obvious subcortical visual route to the amygdala in primates, and there are pathways via thalamus to association areas of visual cortex in blindsight patients
  17. Can emotion change memory, and is this for the better?
    • Yes and no
    • Increased arousal at time of event (9/11) increases memory formation but not accuracy.
    • Supported by the PFC-HPC network, mediated by the amygdala-HPC network (reflecting the autonomous effect of emotion on memory).
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