1. Cohort-Sequential Studies
    groups are assessed at least twice (instead of just once)  researchers can separate age-related changes from cohort effects
  2. retrospective Studies (biographical studies)
    • studies development of one person at a to describe their life in detail
    • memory isn't always accurate
  3. Critical periods
    time where a specific stimuli will have a major effect on development
  4. where does fertilization occur
    fallopian tubes
  5. what is a zygote
    fertilized egg
  6. how many chromosomes does a zygote have
    • 46
    • 23 each parent
  7. morula
    when zygote becomes solid ball of cells in fallopian tube
  8. blastocyst
    • implants itself in the uterus between the 7th and 9th day after conception.
    • the blastocyst burrows into the endometrium where it receives nourishment. It is barely visible, but doubles (amount of cells) every 24 hours.
  9. the placenta
    The placenta provides oxygen, nutrients and removes waste products from the baby's blood .It attaches to the wall of the uterus, and the baby's umbilical cord arises from it.
  10. what causes birth defects
    • tetragons
    • malfunctioning gene or from the environment
  11. The critical period for eyes, ears, arms, legs and the heart development is
    lie within the first trimester (first three months)
  12. neonates
  13. rooting
    • turn head when they are  touched on the cheek
    • try to put the stimulus in his or her mouth
    • ends at  4 months of age
  14. sucking
    • ensures that the baby will nurse on a breast or bottle to be fed and occurs when something is placed in the baby's mouth.
    • voluntary sucking at age 2
  15. swallowing
    Contraction of throat muscles that enables food to pass into the esophagus without the neonate choking
  16. swimming reflex
    babies can naturally swim until 6 months
  17. The lack of some reflexes may indicate
    brain damage
  18. Grasping Reflex/ Palmer Grasp
    • infants closes hand around things
    • can support the babies weight
    • disappears after three months
  19. Moro/ Startle reflex
    A loud noise or a sudden drop causes the neonate to automatically arch their back , fling their arms and legs out and quickly retract themLasts for about six months
  20. Babinski Reflex/ Plantar Reflex
    • occurs after the sole of the foot has been firmly stroked.
    • toes fan out
  21. When the Babinski reflex is present in a child older than 2 years or in an adult, it is often a sign of
    a brain or nervous system disorder. Disorders may include:Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig disease) Brain tumor or injury   MeningitisMultiple sclerosis   Spinal cord injury, defect, or tumor
  22. when do babies vision become clear
    • 2 months after born
    • 2 months = 14 inches away from face
  23. Habituation
    • babies stare at new things
    • Habituation= decreased responsiveness with repeated presentation of the same stimulus
  24. physical development of the musculoskeletal system and maturation of the nervous system allows the infant to
    ollow a sequence of motor developmentThe infant learns to:lift its headturn over on its backdevelop the muscular coordination for refined, visually directed hand movements and for sitting, crawling, standing, and walking, generally in that order. Brain weight also increases rapidly during infancy: by the end of the second year, the brain has already reached 75% of its adult weight.
  25. Developmental Milestones
    we all hit them at different times
  26. the defining feature of puberty- is
    sexual maturation marked by the onset of the ability to reproduce
  27. Puberty begins when your body signals the brain that it is time for
    your pituitary gland to begin secreting hormones
  28. Adolescence is a period of
    personal and social identity formation
  29. Socioemotional Development in Adolescence
    Young people must explore, test limits, become independent, and commit to an identity, or sense of self
  30. By our mid-twenties our physical capabilities
    peak From then on, we are on the accelerating decline
  31. Aging
    • Decreased vigorChanges in fat distributionLoss of hair pigmentationWrinklesfemales ~ 50yrs old, encounter menopause
    • Cataracts (lens thickens, letting less light into the retina, decreasing up close vision)Unable to hear high pitched soundsSensitivity for tastes, smells decreaseNeural processes slow down and the brain begins to atrophy
  32. Menopause-
    inability to reproduce Followed with decrease in the production of female sex hormonemenstrual cycle ceases
  33. To Slow down the process of aging
    • Stay physically fit
    • Stay mentally active
    • Good diet
  34. Alzheimer's Disease
    • Neurons in the brain continue to die
    • Loss of:
    • Memory
    • Reasoning
    • Emotion
    • Control of bodily functions
    • Death
    • 3% of the worlds population may experience this by the time they are 75 yrs old
  35. dementia
    • the loss of mental functions thinking, memory, and reasoning
    • Its severe enough to interfere with a person's daily life
    • Dementia is not a disease itself, but rather a group of symptoms that are caused by various diseases or conditions.
  36. Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
    • He carefully observed/ tested children for decades'His observations were that;
    • Children think differently than adults
    • Certain cognitive structures are innate
    • Only through interaction with the outside world can children grow and develop
  37. Assimilation-
    we take in new information or experiences and incorporate them into our existing ideas (schemas)

    ex. A child sees a new type of dog that he's never seen before and he immediately points to the animal and says, "Dog!
  38. Accommodation
    one's existing schemas, or ideas, as a result of new information or new experiences. New schemas may also be developed during this process.

    ex. child may mistake dog for a cat bc they are both furry they will have to develop new schema
  39. Jean Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development- Stages
    • Stages
    • Sensorimotor  stage
    • Preoperational
    • Concrete operational
    • Formal operational
  40. Sensorimotor  stage
    • baby uses senses
    • Birth- 2yrs 
    • Object  permanence- awareness that objects still exist when out of sight (starts 8-10m)

    Stranger anxiety- fear of unfamiliar people (meaning that now they can differentiate between people they know and those they don’t)
  41. Preoperational stage
    • 2-7 language
    • can think
    • egocentric
    • animism (everything's alive)
    • artificialism ( all objects made by people)
  42. Concrete Operational Stage
    • 7-12
    • simple logic
    • master conservation concepts (changes in form don't alter mass, volume and number)
    • recognizes reversibility
  43. Formal Operational Stage
    • after 12
    • think in abstract
    • hypothetical
  44. From preoperational to concrete, children go from
    egocentric to taking others perspectives
  45. internalization-
    • absorbing information from a specified social environment context
    • Children learn from watching people interact and from the interactions they have with others
    • Parents, teachers and other children play a huge role in this
  46. Zone of proximal development (ZPD)
    change between the level at which a child can solve a problem working alone with difficulty , and the level at which the child can solve the problem with the help of adults or more skilled children
  47. Warner Schaie found that:
    • Fluid intelligence (abilities that require speed or rapid learning) diminishes with age
    • Crystallized intelligence (learned knowledge and skills- vocabulary) improves with age
    • With abilities that require skill and long-term memory, older adults seem far superior to younger people
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