GI3- Foal Diarrhea

  1. What are some key differences b/w a neonatal and adult equine GI tract? (4)
    foals have higher gastric pH and colostrum/IgG transfer to SI, colonization of ingested microbes favored in neonates, major development of hindgut takes place between 1-6 months of age
  2. What does normal foal feces look like?
    pasty, yellow (not watery or bloody, and shouldn't stain or scald)
  3. What are 3 non-infectious causes of neonatal diarrhea?
    "foal heat" diarrhea, perinatal asphyxia, lactose intolerance
  4. Describe "foal heat" diarrhea.
    5-15 days, usually bright and still nursing, self-limiting
  5. Describe perinatal asphyxia.
    necrotizing enterocolitis, may lead to intestinal ischemia, maldigestion, ileus
  6. What are bacterial causes of neonatal diarrhea? (5)
    C. perfringens types A-E, C. difficile Types A-B, Salmonella, E. coli, Actinobacillus
  7. What type of C. perfringens is associated with severe hemorrhagic diarrhea?
    Type C
  8. What are the 2 types of C. difficile and what toxin does each produce?
    • Type A- enterotoxin
    • Type B- cytotoxin
  9. Is C. diff always pathogenic?
    No, some horses are asymptomatic carriers
  10. How do you diagnose clostridial diarrhea? (3)
    culture, toxin assays, fecal smear and gram stain
  11. You should suspect Clostridial diarrhea in...
    sick foals with hemorrhagic diarrhea.
  12. What is a common CBC change with Salmonella diarrhea?
    neutropenia with left shift
  13. How do you diagnose Salmonella diarrhea in foals? (2)
    5 serial fecal cultures, fecal PCR
  14. Diagnose Actinobacillus diarrhea by... (1)
    blood culture positive.
  15. What are viral causes of neonatal diarrhea?
    rotavirus, coronavirus, adenovirus
  16. In what animals does rotavirus cause symptomatic disease?
    foals less than 2 months old
  17. Describe the features of rotavirus diarrhea. (5)
    highly contagious, loss of villous epithelium--> decreased fluid absorption and lactase deficiency--> osmotic diarrhea
  18. How do you diagnose rotavirus diarrhea? (2)
    ELISA or latex agglutination
  19. Describe the pathogenicity of coronavirus in foals?
    isolated from healthy and sick foals in equal proportions
  20. What is a parasitic cause of diarrhea in neonates?
    Strongyloides westeri
  21. How do foals become infected with Strongyloides westeri, and when does disease occur?
    infected early through mare's milk; disease occurs > 10-14 days post-partum
  22. What is a common protozoal cause of neonatal diarrhea?
    Cryptosporidium parvum
  23. Co-infection with ___________ and bacteria is commonly documented in neonates with diarrhea.
    Cryptosporidium parvum
  24. Older foals are more likely to have diarrhea associated with __(3)__; foals less than 1 months old are most likely to have diarrhea associated with _________.
    Salmonella, rotavirus, parasites; C. perfringens
  25. What fecal tests can you run on a neonate with diarrhea, and what does each one specifically test for? (4)
    • fecal culture: Salmonella, Clostridium spp.
    • toxin assays: C. perfringens and difficile types
    • fecal float: Strongyloides, Cryptosporidium
    • PCR panel: rota, corona, crypto, salmonella, rhodococcus, clostridial toxins, neorickettsia, lawsonia
  26. What is the treatment for neonatal diarrhea? (5)
    • Supportive care
    • Clostridial?--> metronidazole
    • Bacteremia?--> broad spectrum antibiotics
    • Rotavirus?--> provide lactase tablets
    • Withhold milk, provide parenteral nutrition
  27. What are potential complications of neonatal diarrhea? (3)
    gstric ulcers, colic, bacteremia
  28. If a neonate with diarrhea develops gastric ulcers (or suspected), what is your adjunctive treatment? (3)
    prophylaxis with omeprazole, H-receptor antagonists, sucralfate
  29. Why might neonates with diarrhea develop gastric ulcers? Why is the a serious complication?
    stress, NSAIDs, altered feeding; risk for gastric perforation
  30. If a neonate with diarrhea is colicking, how can you handle this? (5)
    butorphanol, +/- NSAIDs, repeated measurement of abdomen, +/- abdominal radiographs, consider co-morbities (sepsis, HIE)
  31. What are infectious causes of diarrhea in older foals (> 6 months old)? (4)
    Salmonella, Clostridium spp, Rhodococcus equi, Lawsonia intercellularis
  32. Describe the pathogenesis of Rhodococcus equi in older foals. (3)
    respiratory signs most common, can cause abdominal abscesses, diarrhea
  33. What age foals usually have pathology associated with Rhodococcus equi?
    ages 1-6 months
  34. How do you diagnose Rhodococcus equi in foals? (3)
    ultrasound, TTW, abdominocentesis
  35. How do you treat Rhodococcus equi in foals? (2)
    Clarithromycin and Rifampin
  36. In what aged foals in Lwsonia intercellularis most common?
    4-7 months old
  37. What are the clinical signs of Lawsonia intercellularis infection? (3)
    weight loss, diarrhea (proliferative enteropathy), edema
  38. How do you diagnose Lawsonia intercellularis in foals? (4)
    severe hypoalbuminemia, ultrasound, serology, fecal PCR
  39. What is the treatment for Lawsonia intercellularis in foals? (2)
    Oxytet, doxycycline
  40. What are preventative measures against foal diarrhea? (4)
    good hygiene, proper biosecurity, avoid overcrowding, ensure adequate colostral transfer of immunity
Card Set
GI3- Foal Diarrhea
vetmed GI3