Resp3- Small Rum Resp

  1. When is diagnostic evaluation of ruminant respiratory disease warranted?
    if recurrent outbreaks occur or if the animals do not respond to appropriate therapy
  2. What viral agents are associated with respiratory disease of sheep and goats? (7)
    BRSV, PIV-3, adenovirus, bluetongue virus, OPP/Maedi-Visna virus of sheep, ovine pulmonary carcinoma, CAEV in goats
  3. What bacterial agents are associated with respiratory disease in sheep and goats? (5)
    Mannheimia haemolytica A2, Pasteurella multocida, Bibersteinia trehalosi, Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, Mycoplasma mycoides supsp mycoides (goats)
  4. What is the most common cause of reduced productivity in sheep and goats?
    enzootic pneumonia
  5. Describe prevention, control, and treatment of enzootic pneumonia. (5)
    colostrum management, reduce stress , reduce stocking density, ventilation, antimicrobials
  6. Describe the association b/w B. trehalosi and respiratory disease.
    can be isolated from healthy animals; isolating it from a sick animal does not mean it's the primary cause of disease
  7. Describe the disease associated with B. trehalosi in wild bighorn sheep.
    severe, acute bronchopneumonia- myocardial hemorrhage, septicemia; this is a problem for bighorn sheep in areas where cattle and domestic sheep graze
  8. What is ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma?
    beta retroviral induced bronchioloalveolar carcinoma of sheep (mostly)
  9. Describe the pathogenesis of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma.
    veta retrovirus is integrated into genome of sheep and goats--> lung cancer (not always)
  10. What are the signs of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma? (7)
    exercise intolerance, weight loss with good appetite, dyspnea, tachypnea, crackles, wheezes, pulmonary fluid (+ wheelbarrow test- life hing legs, fluid pours out of nostrils)
  11. What antibiotic should NEVER be used in goats?
    micotil- it kills them (it's okay to use in sheep)
  12. What vaccines for resp disease are labelled for sheep and goats?
  13. Describe the B. trehalosi microbe. (3)
    gram neg non-enteric; ferments trehalose (sugar); produces leukotoxin
  14. What are differentials to rule out when diagnosing ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma? (4)
    ovine progressive pneumonia (Maedi-visna), bronchopneumonia, verminous pneumonia, caseous lymphadenitis
  15. Describe Maedi-Visna.
    non-oncogenic retrovirus that infects monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells
  16. How is Maedi-visna transmitted? What disease does it cause? (2)
    colostrum/milk, nasal secretions
  17. Describe the progression of Maedi-visna (OPP) and the clinical implications of this.
    get infected when nursing--> 3-4 years old, you see signs; by the time you see your first clinical cases, seroprevalence in the herd will be pretty high
  18. What are clinical signs of OPP/Maedi-visna? (5)
    thin ewe syndrome, progressive respiratory failure, "hard bag" (no milk, all tissue/WBCs in udder), posterior paresis, chronic arthritis
  19. What are diagnostics for OPP/Maedi-visna?
    clinical signs/post-mortem lesions, ELISA testing, AGID (test every animal every 6 months- expensive)
  20. When do you test sheep for Maedi-visna and why?
    test animals >6 months old; it takes a while for retrovirus to be integrated into the animal’s DNA and begin making antibodies against it; all young animal will be + because they got WBCs from their mother in colostrum
  21. Describe prevention of Maedi-visna. (4)
    • test and cull every 6 months
    • remove lambs at birth and raise at a clean site
    • depop/repop
    • reduce the possibility of iatrogenic transmission
  22. What primary diseases are caused by CAEV? (3)
    arthritis, CNS disease, rarely pneumonia (chronic interstitial pneumonia)
  23. What are the 3 lungworms of sheep and goats?
    Dictyocaulus filaria, Muellaris capillaris, Protostrongylus rufescens
  24. What type of life cycle does D. filaria have in sheep/goats?
    direct lifecycle, picked up by grazing
  25. What kind of life cycle does M. capillaris and P. rufescens have in sheep/ goats?
    indirect life cycle- involves mollusk IH
  26. How do you treat D. filaria in sheep/goats? (4)
    Levamisole, fenbendazole, ivermectin, moxidectin
  27. How do you treat M. capillaris in sheep/goats? (5)
    fenbendazole, albendazole, oxfendazole, ivermectin, moxidectin
  28. What product can you not use to treat M. capillaris and why not?
    levamisole- it is resistant
  29. How do you treat P. rufescens in sheep/goats? (3)
    Levamisole, fenbendazole, moxidectin
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Resp3- Small Rum Resp
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