1. Mesolimbic
    • Dopaminergic neurons originating in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and terminating in the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and hippocampus
    • Influences limbic and cognitive function, and behavior
    • Hyperactivity in this pathway is associated with positive symptoms of schizophrenia
    • Associated with BEHAVIOR
  2. Mesocortical
    • Dopaminergic neurons originating in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and terminating in the prefrontal cortex (PFC)
    • Influences formation of cognitive processing short-term memories,planning, preparing strategies for problem solving, and psychomotor stimulation
    • Associated with BEHAVIOR
    • Hyperactivity may cause psychomotor agitation
    • Hypoactivity may cause slowed thinking in Parkinson’s disease, reduced concentration in patients with ADHD, and negative symptoms of schizophrenia
    • Provides negative feedback to the mesolimbic pathway to the nucleus accumbens
    •    -Diminished activity may cause overactivity of limbic system,causing or exacerbating the positive symptoms of schizophrenia
  3. Nigostriatal
    • Dopamine neurons originating in substantia nigra and terminating in corpus striatum (basal ganglia)
    • Part of extrapyramidal motor system that controls motor function
    • Deficiency of dopamine associated with MOVEMENT Disruptions
    • D2 receptor antagonists cause side effects of extrapyramidal reactions (EPS)
    •    -Produces a movement disorder similar to Parkinson’s disease(pseudoparkinsonism)
    •    -Muscle spasms or dystonias
    •    -Hyperkinetic movements seen as akathisia and tardive dyskinesia
  4. Tuberinfundibular
    • Short neurons running from the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus to the median eminence and pituitary
    • Dopamine regulates hormone secretion from pituitary
    •    -Inhibits prolactin secretion [PIF]
    •    -Stimulates growth hormone secretion
    • Blockade of D2 receptors (as seen with the use of antipsychotic medications) increases prolactin secretion and may cause
    •    -Females: Galactorrhea (breast engorgement), lactation (inappropriate milk production), amenorrhea, and infertility
    •    -Males: Gynecomastia and impotence
    • Prolactinomas: Most Common Hyperfunctioning Pituitary Adenoma
    •    -Hypersecretion
  5. Pyramidal System
    • Pathway for voluntary movement
    • Most fibers originate in motor cortex and cross to contralateral side in the medulla to affect voluntary movement
    •    -Corticospinal tract
  6. Extrapyramidal System
    • Pathways for postural control / certain reflex movements
    • Originates in brainstem
    • Fibers do not cross
    • Cortex can influence this system via inputs to brain stem
    • Descend to spinal cord, but do NOT pass through pyramids
    •    -Axial muscles responsible for balance and posture
    •    -Muscles controlling movements of proximal portions of limbs
    •    -Head, neck and eye movements
  7. Chlorpromozine
    • Thorazine
    • 1st generation
  8. Fluphenazine
    • Prolixin
    • 1st generation
  9. Haloperidol
    • Haldol
    • 1st generation
  10. Loxapine
    • Loxitane
    • 1st generation
  11. Perphenazine
    • Trilafon
    • 1st generation
  12. Pimozide
    • Orap
    • 1st generation
  13. Thioridazine
    • Mellaril
    • 1st generation Refractory Schizophrenia
  14. Thiothixene
    • Navane
    • 1st generation
  15. Stelazine
    • Trifluoperazine
    • 1st generation
  16. Aripiprazole
    • Abilify
    • 2nd Generation
  17. Asenapine
    • Saphris
    • 2nd Generation
  18. Clozapine
    • Clozaril
    • 2nd Generation
  19. Iloperidone
    • Fanapt
    • 2nd Generation
  20. Lurasidone
    • Latuda
    • 2nd Generation
  21. Olanzapine
    • Zyprexa
    • 2nd Generation
  22. Paliperidone
    • Invega
    • 2nd Generation
  23. Quetiapine
    • Seroquel
    • 2nd Generation
  24. Brepipazole
    • Rexulti
    • 2nd Generation
  25. Risperidone
    • Risperdal
    • 2nd Generation
  26. Ziprasidone
    • Geodon
    • 2nd Generation
Card Set
IT 3 (MT 1): Antipsychotics