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  1. Appeal to Novelty
    rests on the notion that just because something is new it must also be better than what preceded it
  2. Appeal to Popularity
    rests on the notion that just because some idea or thing is popular, it must also be good idea or a good thing
  3. Direct Attack/Hard Sell
    takes the form of a simple slogan
  4. buzz words
    utilizing words that have no concrete content (fancy words that sound good but that really don’t mean much) or by using words that tend to get people agitated at merely hearing them
  5. Scare Quotes
    attempts to persuade by changing the meaning of a term or phrase by placing quotation marks around it
  6. Formal Fallacy—Affirming the Consequent
    affirming the consequent is affirming what comes after the “then” in a conditional (if-then) statement
  7. Modus Ponens
    (affirming the antecedent)
  8. Formal Fallacy
    Denying the Antecedent
  9. Modus Tollens
    (denying the consequent
  10. Fallacy of Deriving ‘Ought’ from ‘Is’
    it is not acceptable to have a conclusion that includes an ‘ought’ (or a statement that says what a person should do) unless the argument also includes a premise that includes an ‘ought’. Simple ‘is’ statements (statements about what is the case) cannot, by themselves, tell us what we ought to do.
  11. Fallacy of Majority Belief
  12. Common Practice
  13. Ad hominem abusive
    attacking the person who gave the argument (rather than actually addressing the argument) or it rejects a claim due to disapproval or dislike of the person who makes it
  14. Ad hominem Circumstantial
    Whenever someone would benefit from something, we should reject their arguments in favor of it
  15. Tu quoque
    Whenever someone’s behavior is inconsistent with their advice, that advice is false.
  16. Inappropriate Appeal to Authority
  17. Weak Analogy
    Even though the two books have many things in common (the author, the publisher, and the cost), we have no justification for thinking a book about chess is going to help a person with finances. That is, there is a huge dis-analogy (dissimilarity) between chess and finances.
  18. False cause
    This fallacy occurs when we mistakenly infer that an event X caused an event Y merely on the basis that Y occurred after X.
  19. Hasty Generalization
    jump to conclusions
  20. Fallacy of Accident
    When we reason with a generalization as if it has no exceptions, we commit the fallacy of accident
  21. Appeal to Ignorance
    a claim has not been proven it must be false (the negative form), or that because a claim has not been disproved it must be true (the positive form).
  22. Equivocation
    • the illegitimate switching of the meaning of a term during the reasoning
    • Brad is a nobody, but since nobody is perfect, Brad must be perfect, too.
  23. Red Herring
    is used to throw someone off the trail of the argument by distracting them with irrelevant information
  24. Slippery Slope
    a person asserts that some undesirable event must inevitably follow from another without any argument for the inevitability of the event in question
  25. Straw Man
    When a person misrepresents, exaggerates, distorts, or simplifies another person’s argument he or she commits a straw man
  26. Begging the Question
    form of circular reasoning
  27. False Dilemma
    also known as the "either-or fallacy" because it makes you think that your options are limited to either one or the other
  28. Complex Question
  29. Fallacy of Composition
    • an inference is mistakenly drawn from the attributes of the parts to the attributes of the whole
    • small to big
  30. Fallacy of Division
    • a mistaken inference is drawn from the attributes of a whole to the attributes of the parts of the whole
    • big to small
  31. Thales
    argued that everything in the universe is made of water and returns to water; he specifically omitted any reference to the supernatural
  32. Anaximander
    žargued that an infinite substance (that he called the Boundless) is the source of everything in the cosmos. He also tried to use purely natural explanations.
  33. pythagoras
    argued that the nature of things resides in mathematical relationships and the universe contains an inherent mathematical order. He also discovered how to express the musical scale mathematically
  34. Parmenides
    argued that everything emerges from one substance and that all of reality is really one, eternal, and unchanging
  35. Heraclitus
    žargued that all of life is maintained by a tension of opposites that fight in a continuous battle that neither side can win.
  36. Democritus
    argued that all knowledge is derived through sense perception and he maintained that the universe consists of empty space and an infinite number of atoms (that which is uncuttable).
  37. Hippocrates
    distinguished between magic and medicine
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