Ren R 350 Final

  1. saturated groundwater flow eqn
    • Q = A x V
    • Q= flow volume per time
    • A= cross sectional flow area
    • V= velocity of water flow
  2. units for water potential?
    pressure units
  3. Darcy's Law: Saturated Flow
    • Q= A K(Δψ/L)
    • Q= flow (vol/time)
    • A= cross sectional flow area
    • K= saturated hydraulic conductivity (length/time)
    • (Δψ/L)= hydraulic gradient, WP potential gradient
  4. Piezometers vs slotted well
    • well gives us direct measurement of water table
    • Non-slotted open-bottom Piezometer takes in water from the bottom, water is under pressure since it's below the water table and its being pushed up against gravity, so it gives us a direct measure of hydraulic head at the bottom of the well
  5. equipotential lines
    lines of equal water potential (hydraulic head)
  6. flow systems: local system
    recharge area (topographic high) and discharge area (topographic low) are adjacent to each other
  7. flow systems: intermediate system
    one or more topographic highs/lows between recharge and discharge areas
  8. flow systems: regional system
    recharge area at major topographic high and discharge area at major topographic low (many smaller highs/lows in between
  9. aquifer
    saturated permeable geologic formation that can transmit significant quantities of water under ordinary hydraulic gradients
  10. aquitards
    saturated geologic formation permeable enough to transmit significant water to regional groundwater systems, but not sufficient for production wells
  11. aquiclude
    saturated geologic formation not capable of transmitting significant quantities of water under ordinary hydraulic gradients
  12. effluent streams
  13. influent streams
  14. possible flow pathways?
    • 1. infiltration excess overland flow
    • 2. baseflow/groundwater flow
    • 3. interflow
    • 4. saturation excess overland flow
    • 5. ??
  15. infiltration excess overland flow
    infiltration rate < precipitation rate
  16. baseflow
    ground water flow, slow pathway
  17. interflow
    shallow sub-surface stormflow
  18. saturation excess overland flow
    return flow + infiltration excess overland flow
  19. Hortonian flow assumption:
    stormflow due to surface runoff (overland flow)
  20. variable source area theory assumes
    only part of a watershed (part by the slope right by the stream) is making direct contributions to stormflow, and the size of this changes over time
  21. VSA identified contributing source areas for flow as:
    • zones near stream banks (riparian areas)
    • ephemeral streambanks
    • soils approach saturation quickly with precip
    • interflow and return flow
  22. ephemeral streams
    losing water (into the groundwater system)
  23. translatory flow
    • aka piston flow
    • displacement of "old" water by newly infiltrated water
    • new water pushes/flushes out old water
  24. basin attributes/watershed conditions (name 5)
    • basin area
    • basin shape
    • topographic features (elevation, slope, aspect)
    • soils/geologic condition (permeability and depth)
    • vegetation/aspect (ET storage opportunity)
    • land use (urban/forested/rural)
  25. channel network attributes
    • drainage pattern
    • slope-channel gradient
    • sinuosity
    • drainage density
  26. shear stress
    resistance to flow along bottom of streambed
  27. drainage density eqn
    = (total length of all streams [km])/(watershed area [km^2])
  28. time of concentration
    time for water to move from the most remote part of the basin its outlet or point of measurement
  29. types of drainage patterns
    • dendritic
    • tellis
    • rectangular
    • parallel
  30. dendritic drainage pattern
    regions with uniform, erodible geology
  31. methods of stream ordering
    • Strahler
    • Shreve
    • Scheidegger
  32. Strahler stream ordering system
    • most commonly recognized
    • distal tributaries = order 1
    • order increases below confluence of two tributaries of same order
  33. limitations of Strahler?
    rivers are getting potentially bigger, but stream order may not increase if not paired with a stream of the same order (can underestimate?)
  34. Shreve stream ordering system
    • distal tributaries = order 1
    • order increases additively below the confluence of two tributaries regardless of order
  35. limitations of Shreve?
    may overestimate stream order
  36. Scheidegger stream ordering system
    • 2 step process
    • 1. preliminary: disal tributaries = order 2, order increases additively below confluence of two tributaries regardless of order
    • 2. final: log2(preliminary order)
  37. low order watersheds:
    smaller watersheds, higher stream density
  38. high order watersheds:
    large watersheds, lower stream density
  39. climatic factors affecting hydrograph shape (4)
    • climatic region/dominant form of ppt
    • rainfall intensity and duration (convective vs frontal storms)
    • antecedent conditions (precipitation, storage)
    • spatial distribution of precipitation
  40. Antecedent precipitation index
    API(i) = (K x API(i-1)) + P(i)

    • API: antecedent precipitation index
    • i: day in question
    • K: recession constant (0.8 to 0.95)
    • i-1: previous day
    • P: precipitation
  41. continuity eqn
    • Q = A x V
    • all methods of streamflow measurement based on this in one way or another
  42. Manning-Chenzy eqn
    • Q = A(1.5/n)r2/3s1/2
    • A= cross sectional flow
    • r= hydraulic radius = A/Wp
    • s= slope gradient of water surface
    • n= roughness coefficient of channel (low if smooth, large if rough streambed)
  43. control section
    spot on the river with a well-defined channel that confines the flow, preferably to the central part of the channel
  44. stage
    • water elevation relative to some datum or benchmark
    • height of that river at that time, determined by staff gauge
  45. rating curve
    relationship bw stage and Q
  46. streamflow measuring site requirements
    • stable banks
    • straight channel section
    • free of backwater
    • no evidence of scouring/sedimentation
    • need to check relationship (bw stage and discharge) periodically
  47. when would you use other methods of stream discharge measurement (like salt dilution)?
    when the streams are smaller or hydraulically rough (where current metering is not suitable)
  48. disturbance
    • anything that affects the hydraulic cycle
    • can be natural or anthropocentric
  49. variability in daily discharge over the years is due to ______, _________
    weather events, climate from year to year/within a year
  50. paired basin approach to determining disturbance effects
    two watersheds that are next to each other are both measured before any disturbance takes place, then one is set as A and one is set as B, one acts as a control (no disturbance) and one acts as a treatment (disturbed), after treatment is applied continue measuring streamflow for a period of years
  51. what does the paired basin approach help you determine?
    relate flow A to flow B, change as a result of treatment will be reflected in change in relationship between the two streamflows after treatment
  52. water yield increases are greatest where:
    • water and energy are abundant and synchronized in time
    • where and when ET is high
  53. wind-scouring and redistribution interacting processes
    • wind redistribution of snow
    • sublimation losses (wind and energy)
    • snow interception
  54. ET recovery
    • how fast evapotranspiration (thus streamflow) recovers to pre-disturbance lvls
    • affects the longevity of how long disturbance effects last
  55. disturbance effects on Q: area harvested or disturbed
    change in Q ↑ proportion of watershed ↑
  56. disturbance effects on Q: climatic region
    change in Q ↑ annual ppt ↑
  57. disturbance effects on Q: is snow redistribution important?
    change in Q ↑ snow:annual ppt ↑
  58. disturbance effects on Q: how long since disturbance?
    change in Q ↓ time since disturbance ↑
  59. hypoheic zone
    saturated interstitial areas beneath the stream bed and banks that contain some portion of channel water (surface/groundwater exchange)
  60. autotrophic
    gets energy from sun, ex. phytoplankton
  61. heterotroph
    get energy from autotrophs and other heterotrophs
  62. allochthonous sources
    energy (carbons) come from outside the ecosystem, ex. plant material that falls/is washed into aquatic ecosystems
  63. autochthonous sources
    energy (carbon) originates from the ecosystem, ex. aquatic plants or algae
  64. riparian water management: forestry
    • no disturbance near streams
    • leave buffers of unharvested areas near streams
    • regulations dictate size of buffer based on stream size
  65. riparian water management: agriculture
    • private land: no enforceable regulations for stream protection zones
    • livestock (grazing) pasture difficult problem, bc need stockwater
  66. water quality
    the suitability of water for designated uses, based on scientific guidelines
  67. Canadian Water Quality Guidelines 5 subdivisions
    • protect aquatic life
    • drinking water
    • irrigation use
    • industrial use
    • direct contact recreation
  68. water pollution
    any substance that enters the environment and elevates the "natural" background level of that substance
  69. point sources of pollution
    change in water quality can be traced to pollutants at a discrete point
  70. non-point sources
    pollutant addition over a broad area (no discrete point source), difficult to identify and monitor
  71. water quality: concentration units
    • amount of substance per unit volume
    • mg/L or ppm
  72. water quality: load or export units
    • total amount substance per unit time
    • kg/day or kg/year
  73. load eqn
    load = discharge x concentration
  74. water quality: yield units
    • total amount of substance per unit area per unit time
    • kg/ha/day or kg/ha/yr
  75. yield eqn (water quality)
    yield = (discharge x concentration)/watershed area
  76. 3 stages of sediment motion
    • i) initiation of motion (erosion/entrainment)
    • ii) downstream transport
    • iii) deposition/settling
  77. Stoke's law
    small particles require lower velocity to stay in suspension therefore as velocity drops, larger particles drop out of suspension before smaller particles
  78. stream power
    • work done by flowing water
    • kinetic energy or erosive power
    • proportional to (velocity)2
  79. competence
    • maximum size of particle that can be eroded
    • proportional to (velocity)6
  80. Hysteresis
    relationship between 2 variables, but direction of change produces a new relationship
  81. turbidity
    • optical clarity of water
    • measured in nephelometric turbidity units (NTU), light scattering (log scale)
  82. Major sources of temperature/thermal pollution
    • industrial activity (cooling water)
    • dams/reseviors
    • streamside vegetation (land use)
  83. factors that affect temperature/thermal pollution
    • flow regime vs. time of peak radiation
    • depth/width ratio
    • stream shade/riparian condition
    • water temp - groundwater vs. radiation control
  84. total dissolved solids
    inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter dissolved (< 2μm) in water
  85. what AB water quality index tracks
    • metals
    • nutrients
    • bacteria
    • pesticide
  86. macronutrients
    • nutrients required in pretty large quantities
    • ex. C, H, O, N, P, S
  87. nutrients most directly affecting water quality?
    N and P
  88. total nutrient concentration = _____ + _______
    particulate fraction, dissolved fraction
  89. what the nutrient quality index tracks
    • dissolved O2
    • pH
    • total P
    • total N
    • N-NH4 (+)
    • N-NO3 (-)
  90. anthropogenic N sources
    • fossil fuels (increase atmospheric deposition, incease N into water supplies)
    • agriculture (largest source by far)
  91. physical process of N transport to aquatic systems: NH4 (+)
    • first product of mineralization/fixation
    • positive charge ~ adsorbed to clays or OM
    • fairly immobile w/ water movement
    • overland flow pathways bulk of NH4 transport
  92. where is NH4 most likely to be a problem?
    agricultural settings rather than forestry settings, because of the increased runoff, less litter, etc.
  93. physical process of N transport to aquatic systems: NO3 (-)
    • second product of mineralization/nitrification
    • negative charge ~ doesn't bind to clays or OM
    • highly mobile in water
    • transported in both surface and subsurface pathways
  94. where is NO3 more likely to be a problem
    more likely to be a problem in places that have fairly significant sub surface flow pathways
  95. When can NO3 (-) be taken up by plants?
    if the aquatic system is well oxygenated
  96. characteristics of higher NO3 concentrations area
    • deeper soils
    • steeper slopes
    • few wetlands
    • deciduous
  97. characteristics of lower NO3 concentrations area
    • shallow soils
    • moderate slopes
    • more wetlands
    • coniferous
  98. ________ becomes important vector for phosphorus storage
  99. eutrophication
    enrichment of aquatic ecosystem with chemical nutrients, typically compounds containing N or P or both
  100. mesotrophic
    body of water having a moderate amount of dissolved nutrients
  101. oligotrophic
    a body of water with very little dissolved nutrients, offer little to sustain life
  102. anything that affects ______ therefore affects _________
    sediment production, phosphorus production
  103. primary purpose of water treatment?
    removal of waterborne pathogens (bacteria, protozoa, viruses) for protection of public health
  104. 5 steps of conventional water treatment
    • 1. coagulation/flocculation
    • 2. sedimentation
    • 3. granular media filtration
    • 4. disinfection
    • 5. distribution
  105. drinking water quality is ________
    • risk based 
    • probability of disease x effect on disability adjusted life years
  106. peat forms when:
    annual rate of plant production exceeds annual decomposition
  107. global average of peat accumulation?
  108. acrotelm
    aerobic or periodically aerobic layer
  109. catotelm
    anaerobic layer below the lower level of water table fluctuation
  110. allogenic factors
    climate regional hydrology
  111. autogenic factors
    water chemistry local hydrology
  112. peat-forming biomes
    • rain tundra
    • wet forest
    • rain forest
    • moist forest
  113. peat formation: terrestrialization
    in-filling of a water body
  114. peat formation: paludification
    • peat growth outward into uplands, localized perennially wet area
    • slow lateral growth of peatland across landscape
    • as the peat grows outward, it brings the water table with it
  115. Fens characteristics
    • water source: precipitation and local groundwater system
    • cation rich (minerotrophic) -> marine origin
    • species rich - has indicator species
    • water table - comparatively stable over season
  116. bogs characteristics
    • water source: precipitation only (grown over influence of local groundwater system)
    • raised peatland - domed, blanket, plateau shape
    • cation poor (ombrotrophic)
    • species poor - no indicator species
    • large seasonal water table variation - large drawdown during dry periods
  117. bogs/fens: ___ peat-forming wetlands
  118. swamps: ____ peat-forming
  119. marshes: ___ peat-forming
    non-peat forming
  120. autogenic factors (peatlands)
    • 2 major trophic gradients
    • 1. nutrient status - soils/hydrology
    • 2. cation status - surficial geology/hydrology
  121. bogs: water table ______, runoff ________
    more variable, highly variable
  122. fens: water table ______, runoff _______
    less variable, more stable
Card Set
Ren R 350 Final
midterm to final