Exam 2

  1. What are the ways that we define a species?
    Distinctive atributes, genetic similarity, and naturally breeding.
  2. Lumpers tend to do what with Taxon of animals?
    Make subspecies
  3. Splitters tend to do what with taxon of animals?
    Make Species
  4. What are subspecies?
    Races, ectypes, strains, and breeds
  5. The general one age concept incorporates multiple criteria:
    Looks or morphology, study of cell structure, kaaryotyping, genomics and proteins.
  6. Arises from molecular action (genes and proteins)
    Structure (morphology)
  7. The biological species concept is defined as?
    An interbreeding population.
  8. Reproductive isolating mechanisms prevents interbreeding. What are these?
    Barrier between interbreeding, arrises for genetic change, or prezygotic vs postzygotic.
  9. A seperation by geography. Can be a matter of physiological tolerance. Due to physiology ot timing of reproduction.
    Habitat isolation
  10. Another isolation du to behavior signaling breeding. Mating dances, songs, pheromones
    Behavioral isolation
  11. Anatomican differences preventing mating. can be applied to plants too.
    Mechanical isolation
  12. Gametes do not unite. Proteins on sperm and egg to not match.
    Gametical isolation
  13. Zygot made but then something goes wrong. egged do not develop past early embryonic stages. Hybrids are not successful.
    Post-Zygote mechanims
  14. Offsprings of hybrids have developmentmental abnormalities or are sterile. AKA advanced generation breakdown.
    Hybrid breakdown.
  15. Pre-zygotic mechanisms summary:
    Habitat, temporal, behavioral, mechanical, gametic, and hybrid problems.
  16. A population diverges into two or more species.
  17. Family tree of phylogenetic trees>
  18. Gradually change from one to another. Kinda like a V in evolution
  19. Branches like a tree, or like a family tree.
    Punctuated equlibrium
  20. What are the types of speciation:
    Allopatric or Sympatric
  21. Type of speciation means the species separated while living within the same area
  22. Tyoe of speciation mean the species separated while living in different areas
  23. THis assumes the evolution was due to natural selection. Also is the same as cladogenesis.
    Adaptive radiation
  24. Aympatric stuff is more due to?
  25. This is from non-disjunction of chromosomes in cell division.
  26. Mean a polyploid organism got at least on of its extra set of chromosomes from a parent of a different species.
  27. Studying evolutionary relationshipd by looking at comparative development.
  28. Genes control:
    How and when cells die, cell migration, cell specialization
  29. Changes in the timing or relative rates of development o different tissues within an organism that can be its offspring.
  30. These are bacteria and Archaea
  31. What did the prokaryotes used to be called?
  32. What is the typical size of bacteria?
  33. Have curcular chromosomes and introns are rare
  34. What are some major differences between Bacteria and Archaea?
    DNA sequences, promoters, rna polymerases, rRNA sequences and initiator tRNA
  35. Archaea and bacteria have these in common.
    Cytoplasm traits, his tones, promoters, and methionine as intitiator.
  36. These have cells walls of unquies compound. No true peptidoglycan, not all are extremeophiles.
  37. This is the domain Bacteria.
  38. What are the shapes of bacteria?
    Bacillus, Helical (Vibro, Spirilla), coccus, and vibrio
  39. (a Phylum) Gram negative heterotrophs.
  40. (a phylum) aerobic, photosynthetic, historically Calle blue-green algae. Chloroplast ancestor. Have intracellular membrane tubules caked thylakoids organized chlorophyll.
  41. Used for orientation. mineral manetic enclosed membrane pouches.
  42. Biofilms aloows for attachment and created and ecosystem. Protects the cell from emvironment.
  43. Whata are the motility mechanisms of bacteria?
    Flagella and Pili
  44. these help move bacteria by twitching or gliding across the surfaces. look like cilia
  45. Tough protein coat created inside the cell protects DNA and key cell components. Unusal dormant
  46. Bacterial cells divide by?
    Binary Fission
  47. Bacteria that love light enery, inorganic carbon source
  48. Bacteria that love heat and chemical energy inorganic carbon source
  49. Bacteria that get ATP from light but dont fix CO2
  50. bacteria that must get both energy and carbon source from existing organic molecules.
  51. What does Aerobe mean?
    need O2
  52. What does anaerobe mean?
    doesnt like O2.
  53. What does facultative mean?
    Prefers aerobics, but can use pathways when needed. Indifferent and can tolerate OS
  54. What does Aerotolerant mean?
    Anaerobe that can survive O2 exposure but does not need it.
  55. Means dead and gone
  56. Means alive and well
  57. This is describing, naming, and classification
  58. THis is the study of evolutionary relationships in inform taxonomy
  59. Taxonmomy hierarchy
    Life, domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class , order, family, genus, species
  60. THese are unique to prokaryotes:
    No cell compartmentalization, circular chrom., nucleotide divide, by binary fission, intron are rare, 70 robosome, operant, no capping on mRNA
  61. Initiate translation w/ firmylmethione. Unique promoter. Ester-linked membrane lipids like eukaryotes
  62. Use methionine and translation initiate like eukaryotes. Use TATA box and ether-linked membrane
  63. Binomial Nomenclature
    Genus and species
  64. Means changes over time
  65. Means the species has split
  66. Means that some descendants arent included in the clade
  67. Means the clade includes descendants from different ancestrial lines.
  68. THis is the miscellaneous file for eukaryotes. most unicellular. Monopyletic (no common ancestor)
  69. Groups that belong together and have a common ancestor.
  70. Groups that donot belong together and no common ancestor.
  71. Protists algae, protopyta, all produce O2 and are aerobes
  72. Protists that are protozoa and protomycota. Animal or fungi like
  73. Protists that do both photosynthesis and heterotrophy
  74. Protists that can absorb very small food particles: digestion external.
  75. Protists that are mircoscopic floating or swimming life. Bacteria protista and invertebrates are labeled this as weel
  76. Mucilage-connected communities attached to underwater surfaces
  77. Seaweeds - mostly multicellular
  78. Thes use numerous tiny hairs, usually in rows or tufts.
  79. These are protists whose cytoskeleton changes ce;; shape, creates a pseudopodia. Not a true ameba, slow.
  80. These protista secrete slime. Poorly understood movement.
  81. On protists: (stigma) light detecting molecules located in a swollen region at the base of a flagellum
  82. On protists: Large mass extra copies of mDNA inside the mitochondrion.
  83. In protists: compressed proteins that elongate into spear-shaped projectiles shot from cells as defense.
  84. In protists: protectuve coats that allow dormacy during bad times.
  85. Protists that have a self defence mechanism agrainst grazers
  86. What are some spuergroups for protista?
    Excavata, Alveolata, Opisthokonta, and Stramenopila
  87. Protist supergroup: Early bracnhc, feeding froove aids ingestion.
  88. Protists supergroup: Have air sacks. Ciliates, gliding, dinoflagellates.
  89. Protists supergroup: Leads to animals, fungi, and related protists.
  90. heterokont are algae with chloroplasts surrounded by four membranes, which are counted from the outermost to the innermost membrane
  91. Distinguishing traits of eukaryotic supergroups:
    Plastid structure, plastid specialization, accessory pigments, flagella type, and DNA
  92. The taxon called Myocata
  93. Characteristics of fungi.
    Eukaryotes, osmotrophs, chitin in cell wall, food stored as glycogen, mitosis within nuclear enveloipe
  94. Single cells. Maybe a life stage of dimorphic/biphasic fungi
  95. Single flage;l;ated cells link fungi to opisthokona supergroup. grow in simple branched filaments
  96. What is the anatatomy of fungi?
    Septate (most) and Aseptate (early forms)
  97. is a long, branching filamentous structure of a fungus, oomycete, or actinobacterium
  98. Mass of hyphae or a visable colony of fungi
  99. Mycelium is commonly called?
  100. Common names to fungi:
    Mildew, rust, smuts, blights, scabs, mushrooms, toadstools, puffballs, stinkhorns, morels, and truffles.
  101. The kind of fungi that lives on the side of trees.
    Bracket fungi and shelf fungi
  102. What do all molds have in common?
    Tthey all have Hyphae and create mycelium
  103. Current cliassification of Fungi is based on what?
    Sex life
  104. How do fungi mate?
    By Hyphae mating. (except in water)
  105. Fungi mating: Normal plasmogamy, delayed keryogamy is common, and result in heterokaryotic dikaryotic cells. AKA: cells fuse, some time can go and then the genes combine, and then two in one.
    Hyphae syngamy
  106. HYphae mating is followed by an aerial growth to support spore dispersal.
    Fruiting body
  107. Produce ascospores in ascocarps. Spore pods and shafts
  108. Produce basidiospores in basida. Spores on a stalk
  109. No sexual spores known, form unusually large multi-uncleared spores
  110. All groups of fungi form asexual sprees in?
  111. The hyphae grow rapidly using what?
    Osmotic pressure
  112. To help move around what does the Hyphae secrete?
    Digestive juices
  113. When fungi feed on the dead tissues, we call them the same term we'd use for bacteria doing the same job in the ecosystem
    decomposers, saprophytes, saprobes
  114. When fungi feed and grow into living tissue and begin digestion we call them?
  115. What do we call fungi that grows outside of cells
  116. What doe we call fungi that grow inside of cells?
  117. These fungi live inside the plant cells and were once thought to be parasitic because they feed on plant sugars, but plants with them do better
  118. How do fungi defend themselves?
    They create alfatoxins = Liver-destroyinh poisons
  119. This is a partnership between fungi and Algae
  120. 95% of lichens arise from?
  121. A single cell of fungi is called?
  122. How can you tell between a prokay or Eukarya cell?
    The Nucleaus and size.
  123. All lichens are actually a multipartner association, as non-photosynthetic bacteria (actinomycetes are also part of the microbiota, paying rent by?
    Making antibiotics
  124. THis gives off that earthy smell.
  125. What are the most basic features hat plants share w/ green algae?
    Chlorophyll A and B. Cell walls built out oif cellulose. Cytoikinesis.
  126. There are two types of molecular bodies for plants.
    Haploids and diploids.
  127. The Diploid individual
  128. thehaploid individual
  129. One Zygote doing meiosis = ?
    4 spore
  130. Gametangia:
    Archegonia and antheridia
  131. This encloses a single egg
  132. This produces many sperm. can swim in algae, mosses and allies, ferns and allies.
  133. Zygotes undergo development into embryo while still within parent tissue.
    Matrotophy (land plants are embryophytes)
  134. A Sporophyte enclosed and sheltered by maternal tissues. A critical innovation in plants
    The embryo
  135. Outer cells have dense cell walls to protect spores. reduce desiccation, barrrier to microbes and UV block
  136. Openings in the cuticle for gas exchange
  137. Xyoglucans: Hemicelluloses, binds w/ cellulose, increases sturdiness.
    plant cell wall
  138. Simplistic plants
    Bryophytes "mosslike", liverworts, Mosses, and Hornworts
  139. they are very primitive conducting tissue, cell-to-cell. Considered non-vascular plants. No true roots, has rhizoids, no true leaves, has flattened single-cell layer, and no true stems.
    Bryophytes et al
  140. Bryophyte 6k species, single-celled called shizoid, single thallus, proto-stomata = pore
  141. Bryophyte 12k multi celled shizoid, port-leaf, "stem" may branch. Peat
  142. 100 species, look similar to liverworts, most have true stomata.
  143. Allows for specialization into root vs leaves, by creating transportation systems for sharing resources.
  144. Specialized vascular cells. conduct water and dissolved minerals. constructed w/liginin
  145. Vascular plants =
  146. Vascular =
  147. Xylem =
  148. Phloem =
  149. Allows for specialization into root vs leaves, by creating transportation systems for sharing resources
  150. 12k species, roots, stems, and leaves, w/ branching vascularizatiun. (Euphyllophytes) (true Leaf Plants) modern are ferns but tree forms did exist.
  151. Everplant other thean mosses and ferns are
    spermatophytes (seed plants)
  152. Every seed plant protects its mega gametophyte in a
  153. Plants protect its micro gametophyte witha
    pollen capsule
  154. A plant ovule started a sporagium with a single megaspore. It develops into a small female gametophyte that produces an
  155. Arises from micros press within sporangia. Make gametophyte is encapsulated for travel. The point of the pollen capsule is protected travel for the male gametophyte.
    A pollen grain
  156. Pollen grain reaches egg containing structure. Male gametophyte extends a pollen tube to egg to achieve fertilization by sperm cell. (No more swimming)
  157. What are the ecological values of seeds?
    Stored food for embryo, potential for dormancy, modification for dispersal
  158. Naked Seeds. Female gametophyte tissues becomes food for seed. Seed not fully enclosed. Pollen enclosed sperm. Pines are the most common Began 250-65 mill years ago. Ended with a bang.
  159. 300 species, mostly tropical. Seeds lack dormancy. Fern-like leaves.use scent to attract beetles as pollinators to male and female cones. =pollination symbiosis.Pollen is carried by battle from male to female. Upon contact w/ ovule, fall lasted sperm exit the pollen grain and swim to egg. They are famous for having coralloid roots that harbor mutualists can nitrogen-fixing Cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria also fix nitrogen.
  160. 1 species unique leaf. Slow maturing, very long-lived (>2000 yrs) very hardy. Equally mature after 25-30 years. Wind pollinated. Pollen produces a pollen tube that absorbs ovule tissue, production flagellated sperm after several months. Sperm finds egg -> seed forms.
  161. 500 species. Tracheid with torus "valve", resin ducts. There are a variety of strobili. Male and female cones; note positions. Wind pollinated. All strobili share basic features, likely due to convergent evolution. Wind borne pollen. Sperm lack flagella. Needle or scale like. Adapted to colder drier climates.
  162. A very diverse group. 70 species. Bracts around ovules, vessel members.
  163. Gymnosperms
    Cycads, Ginkgoes, conifers, gnetophyla
  164. Anthophyta or angiosperms. Flowers, endosperm, enclosed seed, vessels. Dominant in most terrestrial ecosystems during last 65 million years. Pistil aka carpel. Stigma style and ovary femal associated. What's the stamen: Anther and filament. Perinatal =sepals+petals (tepals) more modified leaves. Modification related to pollination strategy. wind dispersal on pollen - no tepals.
    Flowering plants
  165. Animal pollinators
    insects, birds, reptiles, mammals
  166. Seed dispersal
    animals, wind, water
  167. from a second sperm fertilizing a fused pair of gamete cells, resulting in a trip loid tissue. Aka double fertilization.
  168. Secondary metabolites
    Terpenes, phenols, alkaloids
  169. Terpenes
  170. Phenols
    pigments, flavors, antioxidants.
  171. Alkaloids
    Affect animals nervous system Caffine, nicotine, THC, cocaine.
  172. An endophyte that protect plants form pathogens and take poart in photosynthesis. Association between fungal hyphae and plant root. Found in at least 80% of land plants. Enhances uptake of water and minerals by plant 10x -100x. Costs plant up to 20% of its photosynthetic output.
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Exam 2
Exam 2