Chapter 8

  1. What is a stereotype?
    a special kind of social knowledge structure or social belief that represents organized prior knowledge about a group of people that affects how we interpret new information. 

    Most are negative, but some are positive
  2. True or False: 

    Young and older adults drastically diffe in their stereotypes about aging.
    • False: 
    • They hold similar stereotypes
  3. Why are stereotypes used?
    to size up people when we first meet them
  4. True or False: All adults use stereotypes for older adults. 


    age estimation for older adults is more accurate by older adults. 

    Older adult stereotypes are more elaborate due to life experiences 

    They view aging as more positive
  5. age-based double standard
    when people judge older adults' failures in memory as more serious than younger adult failures
  6. What is the more you know attitude?
    the more you know about things the more accurate your judgment
  7. Implicit stereotypes and John Bargh findings?
    automatically activated negative stereotypes about aging that guide behavior without our knowing

    implicit negative stereotypes negatively influence performance
  8. Young-Old implicit attitudes test
    labeled photos as younger or older, pleasant or unpleasant

    fastest to label young-pleasant and older unpleasant
  9. Implicit stereotyping influences what?
    the way we communicate with older adults

    ex: patronizing talk
  10. stereotype threat
    an evoked fear of being judged in accordance with a negative stereotype about a group to which you belong

    - negative stereotypes influence the cognitive functioning of older adults, as well as middle aged adults
  11. Influence of stereotypes is not restricted to memory. Explain.
    physical aging

    better performance on memory tasks and balancing performance when using positive stereotypes
  12. Claude Steel
    studied stereotype threat: if you think a stereotype threat is given towards you, then you will act that way
  13. SElf-perception of aging

    - The __ we hold about aging influence what we believe about ourselves. 

    Positive self-perception= __
    individual's perceptions of their own age and aging 

    social stereotypes

    better well-beng, health, and longer life
  14. Two frameworks for self perception influence
    • labeling theory
    • resilience theory
  15. labeling theory
    when confronting an age-related stereotype, older adults are more likely integrate into their self-perception
  16. resilience theory
    confronting a negative stereotype results in a rejection of that view in favor of a more positive self-perception
  17. negativity bias
    when people allow their initial negative impressions to stand despite subsequent positive information

    older adults are more prone to this bias
  18. Social knowledge
    when we are faced with new situations, we draw on our previous experiences stored in memory

    they must be available and accessible to guide behavior
  19. What is social knowledge dependent on?
    • strength of information
    • extensive past experiences
  20. What are scripts?
    how the world works

    when they are violated, we have to go into our past experiences to see what happens
  21. source judgments
    trying to determine the source of a particular piece of information
  22. Age differences in knowledg accessibility depend on __
    the extent to which people rely on these judgments
  23. Older adults have more __ in __ because of __
    • biases
    • these judgments
    • trouble distinguishing between true and false info
  24. __ indicates damage that leads to older adults believing __ in ads or political campaigns
    • neuroimaging research
    • misleading info
  25. The older yo get, the more __
    challenging it is to figure out the source
  26. What is the processing capacity explanation for age differences in social judgments?
    declines in cognitive processing resources might impact the social judgment process

    Research indicates that we make initial snap judgments and later correct or adjust them based on more reflective thinking
  27. Age related changes in processing capaciy might __

    Older adults do what?
    make older adults more vulnerable to social judgment biases

    older adults hold on to initial judgments of why negative events occur more than younger adults. They also do not adjust initial judgments probably due to lack of cognitive processing resources
  28. What are causal attributions?
    explanations people construct to explain their behavior

    There are two: dispositional and situational
  29. Dispositional attributions (internal)
    behavioral explanations that reside within the person (blaming yourself for ex)
  30. situational attributions (external)
    behavioral explanations that reside outside the person
  31. correspondence bias
    relying on dispositional information and ignoring situational info 

    college students are more prone to this bias

    life experience may combat this in middle adults
  32. Personal goals play a major role in doing what?
    creating direction in our lives

    • young adults= achievement
    • older adults= balance between independence and sharing lives
  33. Selective optomization with compensation (SOC) is an important theoretical model
    • growing older causes shift in priorities; as people, we select goals that allow us to optimize our abilities at different ages
    • - re-evaluating interests
    • - focus in older adults is physical health and socio-emotional needs
  34. Shifting priorities means goal selection may be __.
    perceived differently by older and younger adults
  35. Goal selection requires what?
    that we thoughtfully choose where to invest resources
  36. personal control
    the degree to which one believes that one's performance in a situation depends on something that one personally does

    high: performance up to you

    low: performance under the influence of others
  37. One's sense of control depends on __ is being assessed
    which domain, such as intelligence or health
  38. Higher perceived control is connected with better __, __, and __
    relationships, health, and cognitive functioning
  39. Brandtstadter's three interdepenent processes
    assimilative activities


    immunizing mechanisms
  40. asimilative activities
    used when one must prevent losses

    important to self-esteem

    ex: memory aids; you're making activities doable again
  41. accommoations
    • involve readjusting one's goals an aspirations
    • lessons negative self-evaluations
    • ex: time increase in running--shift target time
  42. immunizing mechanisms
    alter the effects of self-discrepant information

    look for alternative explanations or evidence for failures (ex: memory loss; blaming the environment for your losses
  43. Heckhausen and Schulz's view
    primary and secondary control
  44. primary control
    helps change the environment to match one's goals

    • It involves bringing the environment into line with one's desires and goals
    • Similar to assimilation activities except the difference is that it shifts the environment up to meet goals
  45. secondary control
    reappraises the environment in light of one's decline in functioning

    changing goals so you're in line with the environment

    • involves bringing one's self in line with environment
    • the individual turns inward toward the self

    ex: fired from job--didn't like it anyway
  46. Primary conrol summary
    more adaptive to indiviaul
  47. SEcondary control
    minimize losses
  48. collaborative cognition
    occurs when two or more people work together to solve a cognitive task

    it helps faciliate memory in older adults

    the older you get, the more effective collaborative cognition becomes
  49. storytelling
    the social context can serve a facilitative function in older adults' memory performance

    in real world learning situations, older adults perform better
  50. Because of storytelling, it is important to do what?
    limit our explanations of social cognitive change simply to cognitive processing variables, but also include social factors
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Chapter 8