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What are the pull factors for living in the UK? (8)
- Job opportunities
- Education to a high level
- Better infrastructure
- Equal opportunities
- Democratic government
- Support of EU
- Health Care available
- No conflict
- High GDP per capita
- Little natural disaster risk
- Western lifestyle is attractive
- Easier to get into compared to other EU countries
- Not an extreme climate
Why might a person leave their country of origin to come to the UK? (6)
- Lack of job opportunity
- Natural disaster or environmental hazard such as drought
- Surrounded by religion or identity they don't identify with
- Low GDP per capita
- Poor education
- No/little health care
- Political instability
Define: Multicultural society
Several different ethnic, racial, religious or cultural groups co-existing in harmony with the same society
Define: ethnic segregation
Clustering together of people with similar ethnic or cultural characteristics into separate (usually) urban residential areas
Define: Asylum seeker
Someone who has fled their home country to find a safe place elsewhere. An asylum applicant must be able to demonstrate a well founded fear of persecution for reasons of political opinion, religion, ethnicity, race/nationality, or membership of a particular social group
What is xenophobia?
irrational fear of people from other countries
Why are some people in the UK against the idea of a multi-cultural society?
- Migrants do not integrate, they cluster
- May bring extremist ideas
- Lose original national identity
- Contrasting ideas about equality
What are the benefits of a multi-cultural society?
- Prevents people from being intolerant to other nationalities/religions
- Fills in undesirable but essential jobs
- Balances the demographic of an ageing population
- Contributes taxes (migrants tend to be economically active)
- Enhances the status of the UK education system
Why have different groups of people come to the UK in the past?
- 1950s-1960s Indian people escaping poverty and seeking work
- Enlargement of the EU enabling people from Poland etc to move to UK for work
What is assimilation of a society?
Ethnic groups integrate into wider society. They begin to influence the dominant culture, developing it over time and cultural fusion occurs (melting pot idea)
What is pluralism?
Ethnic groups integrate into society, but retain their own culture whilst adopting the dominant culture. People have multiple identities. Ethnic groups live alongside the indigenous population.
What is cultural balkanisation?
Ethnic groups do not integrate into wider society, they retain their own culture and reject the dominant culture.
When is pluralism of two groups of people likely to occur?
- When they come from countries of similar history
- Countries have strong original identity
- Open minded countries
When is balkanisation likely to occur?
- Between two groups that do not have a language that is in any way similar
- Different culture
- Large numbers of one community in one area (the feeling there is no need to integrate)
When is assimilation likely to occur in a society?
As second and subsequent generations lose their parents' heritage and are exposed to new lifestyles
What economic issues are related to the UK's multicultural society?
- The cost of state benefits can cause resentment and racial intolerance
- Employment of migrants is rising whilst UK nationals is falling
- Wide disparity between economic performance between and within nationalities
What housing issues are related to the UK's multicultural society?
- Multiple occupancy of rented accomodation in inner city areas is widespread
- Ethnic minorities less successful in securing mortgages/loans
- Geographical segregation still present
What educational issues are related to the UK's multicultural society?
- Educational requirements for language might not be met = need for special English lessons
- Holiday patterns, school timetables and school meals have been modified to reflect ethnic mix of that area
- Variation in educational attainment of ethnic minorities shows that Indian and Chinese students out-perform UK ones
- The gap between black and white students is closing to 7.2% points in 2013
What healthcare issues are related to the UK's multicultural society?
- A lack of resistance to childhood diseases among the children of newly arrived immigrants, fears about immunisation
- Many ethnic minority groups live in inner-city areas where there is a higher concentration of communicable diseases = greater health care cost
What percentage of the NHS workforce is non-British? (2014)
What language issues are related to the UK's multicultural society?
- Immigrants may not be able to speak English
- Nearly 1 in 5 people in London speak English as a second language
What religious issues are related to the UK's multicultural society?
- Religious friction between two groups
- Fear forms radical groups of UK citizens against religions such as Islam (such as Britain First)
- Extremists in the UK
- People are unlikely to change their religion/beliefs making this the longest lasting issue in society
What are the top 3 origin countries of migrants in the UK?
- 1. India
- 2. Poland
- 3. Pakistan