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What are the three functions of the lymphatic system?
- Fluid recovery- Aids reabsorption of fluid from tissues back into bloodstream
- Immunity- As fluid is moved back towards the bloodstream, immune cells are picked up from lymph nodes to activate protective immune response.
- Lipid absorption- Lymphatic vessels in the small intestine (lacteals) absorb additional dietary lipids
_______ is a clear, colorless fluid similar to blood plasma (but low in protein) that may also contain macrophages, hormones, bacteria, viruses, cellular debris or traveling cancer cells.
What are the six types of lymphatic cells?
- 1- Natural killer cells (NK cells)
- 2- T lymphocytes (T cells)
- 3- B lymphocytes (B cells)
- 4- Macrophages
- 5- Dendritic cells
- 6- Reticular cells
What is the function of NK cells (natural killer cells)?
responsible for immune surveillance and attack and destroy bacteria, transplanted tissue and host cells that have become infected
What is the function of T cells?
Dependent on thymic hormones.
What is the function of B cells?
These mature in bone marrow and secrete antibodies
What is the function of macrophages?
Phagocytize and alert immune cells to presence of the enemy.
What is the function of dendritic cells?
Alert immune system to presence of harmful cells and work as receptor mediated endocytosis
_____ are patches of lympathic tissue located at the entrance to the the pharynx
What is the body's largest lymphatic organ?
What is the difference between red and white pulp?
Red pulp has erythrocytes and white pulp has lymphocytes and macrophages.
What are the three lines of defense for the body against pathogens?
1- First line of defense: external barriers such as skin and mucous membranes
2- Second line of defense: Leukocytes and macrophages, antimicrobial proteins, immune surveillance, inflammation and fever.
3- Third line of defense: immune system that creates memory of pathogens.
What are interferons?
Proteins secreted by leukocytes when they are infected with viruses
What is febrile and pyrexia?
This results from trauma, infection, drug reactions, brain tumors, and temperature.
What are three benefits of pyrexia?
- 1- promotes interferon activity
- 2- elevates metabolic rate and accelerates tissue repair
- 3- inhibits reproduction of bacteria/virus reproduction
How do aspirin and ibuprofen reduce fever?
By inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.
What are the three general purposes of inflammation? What are the four cardinal signs?
- A) Three general purposes:
- Limit spread of pathogens, remove debris of damaged tissue, initiate tissue repair
- B) Four cardinal signs:
- Redness, swelling, heat and pain
Redness, swelling, heat and pain are the four cardinal signs of what?
What are two characteristics that separate immunity from non-specific resistance?
Specificity and Memory
What is the difference between humoral (antibody-mediated) and cellular (cell-mediated) immunity?
Humoral- Doesn't destroy a pathogen but tags them for destruction
cellular- lymphocytes directly attack and destroy foreign cells/ diseased host cells
What is the difference between active and passive immunity?
Active immunity is when the body makes its own antibodies/T cells to fight pathogens.
Passive immunity is when the body acquires immunity from a different source.
What is an antigen?
A molecule that triggers an immune response