Chapter 13: Criminal Law and Business

  1. Accessory
    A term used at the state level that is similar to aiding and abetting.
  2. Aiding and abetting
    A criminal action that arises from association with and from assistance rendered to a person guilty of another criminal act
  3. Bankruptcy crimes
    An action involving the falsification of documents filed in a bankruptcy case
  4. Burglary
    Theft by breaking and entering
  5. Concealment
    A intentional misrepresentation of a material fact occurring through the silence of the party
  6. Conspiracy
    A combination or agreement between two or more persons from the commission of a criminal act
  7. Double jeopardy
    A constitutional doctrine that prohibits an individual from being prosecuted twice by the same governing body based on the same factual situation
  8. Endangerment of workers
    A criminal act that involves placing employees at risk with respect to their health and safety in the work environment
  9. Exculpatory no
    The doctrine that merely denying guilt is not a criminal lie in response to a question from an agency of the federal government. This doctrine is no longer valid.
  10. Expectation of privacy
    The expectation that one with not be observed by the state
  11. Felonies
    A criminal offense of a serious nature, generally punishable by death or imprisonment in a penitentiary
  12. Foreign Corrupt Practices Acts
    A U.S. law that seeks to ban the payment of bribes to foreign officials in order to obtain business
  13. Fraud
    A false representation of fact  made with the intent to decieve another that is justifiably relied upon to the injury of that person
  14. Good faith
    Honestly in dealing, innocence; without fraud or deceit
  15. Indictment
    A document issued by a grand jury formally charging a person with a felony
  16. Information
    A written accusation by the prosecutor presented in court charging an accused person with a crime
  17. Intent
    A legal doctrine indicating that parties meant to do what they did
  18. Intent to defraud
    Applies to an individual who knowingly and willfully makes a misrepresentation of a material fact that is relied on and thereby causes injury or harm
  19. Kickbacks
    Payments made to a person who has facilitated a transaction
  20. Knowingly
    Intentionally
  21. Larceny
    The unlawful taking of personal property with the intent to deprive the right owner of this property
  22. Mail fraud
    The use of the U.S. Postal Service or any interstate carrier to conduct fraudulent activities with the intent to deprive an owner of property
  23. Misdameanors
    A criminal offense of less serious nature than a felony, generally punishable by fine or jail sentence other than in a penitentiary
  24. Nolo contendere
    A plea entered by the defendant in a criminal case that neither admits nor denies the crime allegedly committed but, if accepted by the court, permits the judge to treat the defendant as guilty
  25. Obstruction of justice
    A criminal act involving the interference of the administration of the laws during the investigations and conduct trials
  26. Overt act
    An essential element of crime. Without this action by a party, the intent to engage in criminal activity is wrongful
  27. Pattern of racketeering
    Under RICO, two or more similar acts of organized crime in a ten-year period
  28. Presumption of innocence
    The basis of requiring the government to prove a criminal defendant's guilt beyond a reasonable doubt
  29. Probable cause
    The reasonable basis on which law enforcement officials convince a judge that criminal activity has occurred. This is the basis that must be satisfied before a judge will issue a criminal search warrant.
  30. Racketeering
    A crime under RICO involving a pattern of actions that are indictable under state or federal laws
  31. RICO
    The Racketeer Influences and Corrupt Organization Act
  32. Robbery
    Illegally taking something by force
  33. Scheme to defraud
    A plan to misrepresent a material fact in order to obtain something, usually money, from another
  34. Search warrant
    A court order required by the Fourth Amendment to be obtained from government officials prior to private property being searched or seized
  35. Sentencing guidelines
    Adopted by the U.S. Sentencing Commission as a means of standardizing the sentences given to similar criminals committing similar crimes
  36. Unreasonable search and seizure
    A violation of the Fourth Amendment that occurs when a valid search warrant is not obtained or when the scope of a valid warrant is exceeded
  37. White-collar crime
    Violations of the law by business organizations or by individuals in a business-related capacity
  38. Willfully
    With intent to defraud or decieve
  39. Wire fraud
    The use of radio, television, telephone, Internet, or other wired forms of communication to conduct fraudulent activities with the intent to deprive an owner of property
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ndrewoliver
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Chapter 13: Criminal Law and Business
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