alpha, beta and gamma decay
- alpha (helium nucleus released, 4, 2)
- beta (electron released, 0, -1)
- gamma (high energy photon, 0,0)
- pressure fluid exerts on the walls of its container
- ex. force of blood on the blood vessels
- pressure needed to prevent the flow of fluid across semipermeable membrane via osmosis
- oncotic pressure: exerted by proteins like albumin
net filtration pressure
difference between net hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure
at the arterial end of the capillary, what direction is the net flow of fluid?
positive net filtration pressure, movement of fluid from capillary (blood) to interstitial space because capillary hydrostatic pressure is greater than blood colloid osmotic pressure
at the venule end of the capillary, what direction is the net flow of fluid?
- into the blood, because of greater oncotic pressure than hydrostatic pressure of capillary
- negative net filtration
is blood pressure greater in the systemic or pulmonary circulation?
- greater in the systemic circulation b/c its length is greater than pulmonary, hence greater resistance R=pL/A, greater blood pressure
- in addition, left ventricle which feeds the systemic circulation P=F/A has greater force than right ventricle (pulmonary circulation)
carries oxygen rich blood from the left atrium of the heart (right side) to tissues and returns oxygen poor blood to the right atrium via the superior and inferior venae cavae
- carries oxygen poor blood from the heart through pulmonary trunk to the lungs for gas exchange
- carries oxygen rich blood to the left atrium of the heart
what happens at the pulmonary capillaries
CO2 exchanged for O2. O2 rich blood flows through pulmonary veins to the left atrium
pulmonary artery function
transport oxygen poor blood to the lungs
how does the blood flow rate compare between systemic and pulmonary circulation
the same, since they are connected in series, the flow rate (analogous to current) is the same
restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing shortage of oxygen to tissues. as a result of problems with blood vessels, damage to organs
what is the charge of an electron?
1.6 x 10^-19
for an incompressible fluid what remains the same
volume (Area *d)
compared to sound waves at the tympanic membrane, the intensity felt by fluid that induces depolarization of the stereo cilia is?
- since the area of the stapes is smaller, intensity will be greater at stapes (pushing on the fluid)
if tympanic membrane and ossicles were to be removed what happens to rodents?
- less sensitive to sounds
- intensity increases as waves travel through the ear (decrease in area), hence rodent will not be able to hear well
what is the wavelength of pipe with one closed end?
- n= harmonics (1,3,5)
- third highest resonant is 5 (4L/5), the resonant is 0.8 of the length
change in optical rotation because of change in equilibrium between two anomers (ex. cyclic sugars interconvert between alpha and beta forms, need hemiacetal/ketal group to do this)
specific rotation in terms of observed rotation?
- observed rotation/(conc of product)(length of tube)
- when concentration of produce decrease (less product), observed rotation decreased
- but specific rotation remains the same
five membered fructose ring, 6 membered glucose ring
carbonyl with one methyl group
what is the rate of the reaction proportional to?
the slowest step. In the passage the slowest step is the breakdown of ES, hence the rate of the reaction is proportional to amount of ES present
when glucose is oxidized in Fehling's reaction, how is the equilibrium of the hemiacetal D-glucose and linear D-glucose shifted?
- linear form is favored since linear can be oxidized
- as the linear form gets consumed, equilibrium shifted to produce more linear form
steps to forming a disaccharide
- 1. protonation of OH of one of the sugars (form H2O)
- 2. OH (4) from the other sugar attacks
- 3. H2O leaves, and bond is formed
- 4. Excess H leaves
- auto ionization of water H2O to H+ and OH-
- greater the heat, greater Kw
- the only thing that changes equilibrium constant is a change in temperature
common ion effect
- reduction in molar solubility of an ionic precipitate when one of its ions is in solution
- molar solubility: amount of solute dissolved per liter of solution, Ksp does not change
solubility of gases and non gaseous solutes with temperature
- solubility of nongaseous solute increases with increase in temp, solubility of gaseous solute decreases with increase in temp
- body temp is greater than 25C
why does glucose not dissociate in solution
it is covalently bonded
phosphoric acid formula
NH2 electron donating
oxidation of what kind of alcohol will lead to ketone
what is an alkanoyl halide? like ethanoyl chloride?
acyl (from carboxylic acid) group with chloride
primary alcohol to aldehyde without further oxidation to carboxylic acid
at neutral pH, what are the charges on amino acids
carboxyl group (neg), amino group (pos)
when placed in an electric field, what kind of charge will move to the cathode?
cathode and anode of a battery (discharging) and galvanic cells
- red cat
- cathode is positive, anode is neg
cathode and electrode of charging system, and electrophoresis
reversed, cathode is neg, anode is positive, but the reaction at anode is always oxidation, and cathode is reduction
differences in energy conversion between galvanic and electrolytic cell
- galvanic cells converts chemical to electrical energy
- electrolytic converts electrical to chemical
how strong is the acid of a stable conjugate base
stronger the acid
how are hemiketals formed?
addition of nucleophillic OH (from alcohol) group to ketone carbonyl
D/L designations in stereoisomers
- D rotates plane polarized light clockwise (dexter, right)
- L rotates plane polarized light counterclockwise (levo, left)
trypsin usually cleaves what kind of amino acid?
basic (positive charge)
chymotrypsin usually cleaves what kind of amino acid
large hydrophobic ones like aromatic compounds
treat with apparent kindness that betrays a feeling of superiority
what happens when there is a relaxation of arteries?
- heat loss
- increase in arterial blood volume and decrease in blood pressure
- decrease in venous volume (pulled into arterial side)
what is the difference between diffusion and osmosis?
- diffusion movement across the membrane of a solute
- osmosis movement across the membrane of a solvent
- requires a carrier molecule or pore (passive)
- ion channel
x linked recessive disease
usually occurs in males: one copy of that gene will cause the disease in males
for growth and repair in somatic cells
pyruvate to ethanol and carbon-dioxide in fermentation
trait expressed in all population with the gene
active site is part of what kind of structure of an enzyme?
what does it mean when an enzyme is monomeric?
one chain, no quaternary structure
one species benefit while the other neither
pouch connected to the junction between the large and small intestine
where do bacteria inhabit in the body?
facultative vs. obligate anaerobes
- facultative organisms can make ATP in the presence or absence of oxygen
- obligate organisms are poisoned by oxygen
- obligate aerobe make ATP in the presence of oxygen
function of primase
an unfixed double strand break that occurs at which point in the cell cycle will most likely affect both chromatids in a pair of sister chromatids?
G1, because it occurs before replication
how does metaphase align chromosomes in the middle of the plate?
using spindle apparatus to attach to kinetochore fibers
results in same amino acid
difference btw epimers and anomer
- epimer differ at any one stereo center
- anomer differ at anomeric carbon
which limb in the loop of henle is permeable to water?
function of aldosterone
works to increase salt reabsorption in the cortical collecting duct
types 1 diabetes occurs b/c
of destruction of beta cells in the islet of Langerhans of the pancreas
induction in development
the presence of one tissue affects the development of others
transfection vs. transduction vs. transformation
- transformation: naturally DNA is incorporated via membrane (temp change)
- transfection: introducing nucleic acids in cells sonification, nano pipette)
- transduction: virus mediated DNA transfer (using host cell machinery)
a scientist wants to study the location of viral synthesis what method should he use?
autoradiography, radioactively label amino acids and then localize their activity
why is the mitochondria DNA primarily derived from the mother?
following penetration, sperm derived mitochondria disintegrate