Chapter 7: Intelligence Reasoning Creativity and Wisdom

  1. factors that constitute intelligence
    • problem soliving
    • verbal ability
    • social competence
  2. Problem solving ability
    • reasoning logically
    • identify connections
    • see aspects of problems
    • making good decisions
  3. Verbal ability
    • speaking articulately 
    • high comprehension
    • good vocab
  4. Social competence
    • accepting others
    • admitting mistakes
    • interest in the world
    • being on time

    • interacting with people in an appropriate way
  5. theories of intelligence have four concepts
    • multidimensional
    • multidirectionality
    • plasticity
    • interindividual variability
  6. multidimensional
    many domains of intellectuall abilites; its not one thing or score; it is a large variety of things
  7. multidrectionality
    • different patterns for different abilities
    • every day knowledge increases; cognitive mechanisms decline with age
  8. plasticity
    • range of ability modifications within specific ages
    • may decline due to lack of practice
    • different activation patterns in the brain
  9. interindividual variability
    adults differ in direction of intellectual development; some decline, some improvements

    nobody is the same; everyone is unique
  10. the dual component model of intellectual functioning-two developmental processes:
    • mechanics of intelligence
    • pragmatics of intelligence
  11. mechanics of intelligence
    • neurophysiological architecture of mind
    • bases for cognitive abilities
    • greatest change= childhood and adolescence
    • you're wired and you delve into it
  12. pragmatics of intelligence
    accquired bodies of knowledge embedded in culture; learn from other people

    includes everyday cognitive performance and human adaptation
  13. What governs...

    - mechanics? 
    - pragmatics?
    biological-genetic forces govern mechanics (decline with age)

    environmental-cultural forces govern pragmatics (increase with age)
  14. Research approaches to intelligence
    the psychometric approach

    the cognitive structural approach
  15. the psychometric approach
    measuring intelligence as a score on a standardized test

    focus is on getting correct answers

    less emphasis on thought process; tests primary mental abilities
  16. cognitive-structural approach
    ways in which people conceptualize and solve problems emphasizing developmental changes in modes and styles of thinking

    incorporates how you change as you get older
  17. primary and second mental abilities
    primary mental abilities: hypothetical constructs into which related skills are organized

    secondary mental abilities: related groups of primary mental abilities
  18. primary mental abilities include
    • number
    • word fluency
    • verbal meaning
    • inductive reasoining
    • spatial orientation
  19. 2 major secondary mental abilities are?
    fluid and crystallized intelligence
  20. fluid intelligence
    the abilities that:

    • make you a flexible and adaptive thinker
    • allow you to make inferences, reason
    • enable you to understand the relations among concepts
    • fluid intelligence declines through adulthood
    • reason,multitask, problem solve
  21. crystallized intelligence
    the knowledge you have gained through life experiences and education in a particular culture

    crystallized intelligence improves through adulthood

    general knowledge
  22. moderators of intellectual change
    • cohort differences
    • information processing
    • social and life style variables
    • personality
    • health
  23. cohort differences
    • comparing longitudinal studies with cross-sectional show little or no decline in intellectual performance with age
    • generational rather than age differences, such as better education, nutrition, Flynn effect, etc
  24. Information processing
    • perceptual speed may account for age-related decline
    • working memory decline may account for poor performance of older adults if coordination between old and new information is required
    • inability to inhibit actions and thoughts or to avoid interference
  25. Flynn effect
    as time goes on, people get smarter

    there's more knowledge that exists
  26. IPT affected by age?
    • perception declines
    • selective attention decline
    • attentional energy declines
    • chunks decline and manipulation
    • retrieval slows down due to lack of use, connections not as tight, taught retrieval strategy
  27. social and life style variables
    differences in cognitive skills needed in different occupations make a difference in intellectual development

    higher education and SES also related to slower rates of intellectual decline
  28. personality
    high levels of fluid abilities and a high sense of internal control lead to positive changes in people's perception of their abilities
  29. health
    a connection between disease and intelligence has been established in general

    cardiovascular disease has implications for intellectual functioning

    physical exercise has considerable benefit on cognitive fitness
  30. Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
    schemas: mental ways of organizing the world

    assimilation: use of currently available informaiotn to make sense out of incoming information

    accomodation: changing one's thought to make a better approximation of the world of experience
  31. There are four stages of the theory of cognitive development
    • the sensorimotor stage
    • preoperational stage
    • concrete operational stage 
    • formal operational stage
  32. sensorimotor stage
    • Piaget's first stage (birth-2 year old)
    • schemas are developed through sensory and motor activities
    • one important concept acquired at the end of this stage is object permanence
  33. Preoperational stage
    • piaget's second stage (2 -7)
    • employ significant language and to think symbolically 
    • child lacks reversibility and conservation
    • egocentric and animistic
    • concepts not yet operational
  34. Concrete operational stage
    Piaget's third stage (7-11)

    can perform mental operations on concrete objects

    understand reversibility and conservation

    abstract thinking is not yet present

    use simple logic in explanations
  35. conservation
    conservation--recognizing that certain physical attributes (such as volume) remain unchanged, even when their outward appearance changes
  36. formal operational stage
    piaget's fourth stage (11 and beyond)

    Abstract and hypothetical thinking

    individuals can elaborately plan and think about the future
  37. Abstract and hypothetical thinking
    • begin to apply their operations to abstract concepts in addition to concrete objects
    • capable of hypothetical thinking and logical processes
  38. Going beyond formal operatoins is?
    postformal thought
  39. Going beyond formal operations: Postformal thought
    characterized by recognition that: 

    • 1) truth may vary from situation to situation
    • 2) solutions must be realistic to be reasonable
    • 3) ambiguity and contradiction are the rule (more comfortable with a vague answer)
    • 4) emotion and subjective factors usually play a role in thinking (reflective thinking)
  40. Going beyond formal operations: reflective judgment
    a way adults reason through dilemmas involving current affairs, religion, science, personal relationships, etc. 

    this stage is beyond formal thought
  41. 3 stages of reflective judgment
    • 1) pre-reflective reasoning
    • 2) quasi-reflective reasoning
    • 3) reflective reasoning
  42. preflective reasoning
    knowledge gained through the word of an authority figure or observation

    believe what they know is absolutely true

    hold firm on controversial issues (childhood and teen years)
  43. quasi-reflective reasoning
    knowledge claims contain elements of uncertainty which attribute to missing info or method to obtain evidence

    less persuasive with stnace on controversial isues

    (young adulthood to middle adulthood)
  44. reflective reasoning
    knowledge claims cannot be made with certainty

    make judgments that are most reasonable; relatively certain based on data

    readily reevaluate their judgments for adequacy as new data comes along (middle to late adult)
  45. Going beyond formal operations: absolutist, relativistic, and dialectical thinking
    absolutist: firmly believing there is only one correct solution (adolescents and young adult)

    relativistic: the right answer depends on the circumstances (young and early middle-aged adults)

    dialectical: see the merits in various viewpoints but synthesize them into a workable solution; strong commitment and definite plan of action
  46. decision making
    younger adults make decisions quicker than onlder adults

    experience nad knowledge make older adults less susceptible to irrational biases in their decisions
  47. Why do younger make decisions quicker than older adults?
    • they search for less info to arrive at a decision
    • require less info to arrive at a decision
    • rely on easily accessible info
  48. problem solving
    we use our intellectual abilities to solve problems; some people are better than others

    Denny's model of unexercised and optimally exercised abiliities
  49. unexercised ability
    the ability a normal, healthy adult would exhibit without practice or training
  50. Optimally exercised ability
    the ability a normal, healthy adult would demonstrate under the best conditions of training or practice

    studying and practicing
  51. Practical problem solving
    observed tasks of daily living (OTDL)
  52. What is OTDL directly impacted by?
    • age 
    • fluid intelligence
    • crystallized intelligence
  53. What is OTDL indirectly impacted by?
    • perceptual speed
    • memory
    • several aspects of health
  54. How do the young and old learn?
    young: what do i need to know? 

    old: motivated by knowledge? why? how?
  55. Wisdom
    four characteristics:

    • deals with important matters of life
    • is truly "superior" knowledge, judgment, and advice
    • has extraordinary scope, depth, and balance
    • is well intended and combines mind and virtue
  56. Age and wisdom
    no association between age and wisdom

    general personal conditions, specific expertise and facilitative life contexts create wisdom
Card Set
Chapter 7: Intelligence Reasoning Creativity and Wisdom
Test Two