Chapter 6 continued

  1. autobiographical memory
    involves remembering info and events from our own life

    - it is a form of episodic memory on speed

    • tough to test--independent verification
    • number of memories increase fastest during young adulthood--social interactions

    tough to test because who will validate it?
  2. What did Casey et al say about autobiographical memory?
    Events experienced between 10 and 30 years of age are reported more often than those occurring in middle adulthood; after that, they get lumped

    generalization of events
  3. flashbulb memories
    vivid memories of very personal or emotional events, but these are often inaccurate

    details are off, but gist of story is accurate

    highly emotional events tend to be remembered better
  4. Eyewitness testimony
    in regards to flashbulb memory: very temperamental because you don't know how accurate it could be
  5. Additional memory processes
    • source memory 
    • false memory
  6. source memory
    the ability to remember where you got the memory (the source) and to determine if an event was imagined or actually experienced (taking medication)
  7. Older adults and source memory
    older adults are less accurate at many source-memory tasks

    The DRYAD model applies here--> older adults presumed to have less valid representations of events and objects

    Overactive prefrontal cortex

    struggle acccessing contextual details negatively impacts retrieval
  8. false memory
    when one remembers items or events that did not occur

    If we hear them enough, we start believing them

    Older adults tend to be more susceptible to false memory issues than younger adults
  9. factors that preserve memory (cognitive reserve)

    multilingualism and cognitive functioning

    semantic memory in service of episodic memory

    negative stereotypes and memory performance
  10. exercise
    improves cognitive performance

    enhances brain flexibility/ adaptability

    intervention alternative for Alzheimer's, strokes, etc.
  11. multilingualism and cognitive functioning
    older adults suggests that older adults who speak four or more languages had the best cognitive state independent of education
  12. semantic memory in service of episodic memory
    older adults are better at memory of related as opposed to unrelated word pairs

    the more associations, the stronger the performance
  13. negative stereotypes and memory performance
    older adults do worse on memory tasks if they believe that age hampers memory ability
  14. aspects of memory self-evaluations

    memory monitoring
  15. metamemory
    knowledge about how memory works and what we believe is true about it
  16. memory monitoring
    awareness of what we are doing with our memory right now

    aware of your deficits
  17. age differences in metamemory
    older adults seem to know less about how memory works than younger adults 

    view memory as less stable

    expect that memory will deteriorate

    perceive they have less control over memory

    the stronger you believe your memory is, the better off you'll be
  18. parallel distribution processing model--PCP
    the more neurons communicate with each other, the gap between the two gets thicker and thicker, meaning you can readily recall the information
  19. negative stereotypes and memory performance
    just the stereotypes can impact performance

    elderly adults who feel their memory is going to decline perform worse than elderly adults who are confident in their abilities
  20. As you get older, you have __ about your memory because you don't know how memory works
    more negative belief
  21. age differences in memory monitoring
    the ability to monitor one's memory does not appear to decline with age

    better monitors use effective strategies and apply to appropriate situations

    good predictor of performance
  22. memory self-efficacy
    belief that you can perform somethingthat you need to remember
  23. memory training skills
    external aids: rely on environmental resources; notebooks, calendars, phones

    internal aids: rely on mental processes; rote rehearsal, method of loci, mnemonics
  24. Explicit vs implicit
    explicit: direct aids

    implicit: indirect aids
  25. explicit-external
    • easy to use, widely avaiable
    • ex: phone, alarm clock, pillbox by day

    anything you can put in your environment and you're doing it on purpose
  26. implicit-external
    something changed in the environment and they don't know it was a memory aid

    ex: color coded hallways
  27. Explicit-internal
    i'm going to put my effort into solving a problem using your brain

    ex: finding car in parking lot
  28. implicit-internal
    • this is really with Alzheimer's patients
    • based on space retrieval--gradually increase the time between retrieval attempts
  29. normal vs abnormal aging
    distinguish by asking if changes disrupt a person's ability to function in everyday life

    telling the difference isnt hard. You need physician evaluation

    Prefrontal cortex, parietal and hippocampus are involved
  30. memory and nutrition
    • poor diet can affect memory
    • flavonoids reverse age related deficits (blueberries and green tea)

    dietary iron and folic acid
  31. memory and physical and mental health
    damage to the brain can cause issues
Card Set
Chapter 6 continued
test two