Chapter 6: Attention and Memory

  1. Harry Lorayne.
    • Wrote Ageless Memory
    •  
    • He knew how to take in info from the environment and had an exxceptional memory
  2. What was the stereotypical view that he addressed?
    elderly forgetting versus youth forgetting the same item. youth is acceptable because they are "just so busy" 

    Instead, he said that it is about task and context

    Task-related differences--> type and context
  3. Explain the idea of task and context
    • if its something you're familiar with, you should be able to do it
    • If the context is hectic, it throws you off. If it is a normal night and you forget, that's reason to worry.
  4. Information processing model
    uses a pc metaphor to explain how people process stimuli
  5. What are the three assumptions of the information-processing model?
    • people are active participants in the process
    • both quantitative aspects of performance can be examined (how much and type/how relevant)
    • Informaiton is processed through a series of hypothetical stages or stores (sensory, short term, and long term)
  6. Compare the steps of IPM to a computer
    • info comes in through the outside world--encoding
    • from there, you save it/store it in the brain--storage
    • when you need it again, you retrieve the information--retrieval
  7. Explain the IPT (Info Processing theory)
    stimulus from the environment--> sensory memory--(encoded)--> STM/ working--(encoding)--> LTM
  8. What is the purpose of sensory, STM, and LTM?
    • Sensory: holds sensory info
    • STM: holds info temporarily for analysis
    • LTM: relatively permanent storage
  9. What is the duration of each?
    • Sensory: Lasts up to 1/2 sec-2
    • STM: 30 seconds
    • LTM: relatively permanent
  10. How do you keep somethingin your STM?
    maintenance rehearsal
  11. How do you go from STM to LTM and back?
    STM to LTM: elaborative rehearsal

    LTM to STM: retrieval
  12. What is the capacity of each?
    • Sensory: unlimited
    • STM: 5-9 (7+/-2)
    • LTM: relatively unlimited
  13. sensory memory
    aka: selective

    a brief and almost identical representation of the stimuli that exists in the observable environment

    To move it to STM, you need to pay attention or it is lost
  14. Attention
    functional perspective: attention is composed of separate dimensions serving different functions

    Attentional control is linked to the parieto-frontal lobes
  15. How would the elderly struggle with sensory?
    they focus on irrelevant information de to parieto-frontal deterioration
  16. Speed of processing?
    how quickly it goes from environmental stimuli to LTM that you can store for later use

    It is not the whole process that is slowing down. It depends on the task/ what it is you are working with
  17. What are two possible reasons for processing speed reduction?
    • inhibitory loss: older adults have a hard time inhibiting irrelevant information
    • --> You can teach strategies that decrease this, provide emotionally supportive messages to give a positive effect; beneficial--> when it becomes relevant, better than youth

    attentional changes: older adults can still divide their attention. It just depends on the complexity of the two tasks they are doing/ multitaskign is still a possibility
  18. Automatic processing
    places minimal demands on attentional capacity; you don't put much time into it; info comes in without us being aware
  19. Effortful proessing
    requires all of the available attentional capacity; you need to stop and think of a plan of action
  20. In regards to automatic and effortful, what is the trend?
    in the beginning, they begin as effortful and eventually they become automatic.

    In certain conditions, things become effortful. Things that were once automatic may well become effortful
  21. 3 memory processes
    • encoding: process of getting info into the memory system (sensory--> STM)
    • storage: the manner in which info is represented and kept in memory (STM-->LTM)
    • retrieval: getting info back out of memory (LTM--> STM)
  22. what can encoding be disrupted by?
    the decline of selective attention
  23. What helps STM--> LTM?
    making something meaningful as opposed to general
  24. Why do older people struggle with retrieval?
    • the neurons are dying, meaning connections are weak; it's hard to pull it back out
    • limited plasticity
    • illnesses such as dementia, Alzheimer's, etc., thus making it difficult for information to be pulled out
    • You can teach them retrieval strategies
  25. Working memory/STM
    allows you to solve a problem, make a decision, and learn new information; the active processes and structures involved in holding information in mind
  26. What is working memory used for?
    • solve a problem
    • make a decision
    • learn new information
  27. How are older adults affected by working memory?
    • Your ability to stay alert changes
    • If you have multiple tasks, it depends on the sequence of the tasks
    • Task interference
    • Tough juggling; there is a limit; the limit declines with age
  28. rehearsal
    the process by which information is held in working memory

    • maintenance rehearsal 
    • elaborative rehearsal
  29. implicit memory (procedural memory)
    retrieval of information without conscious or intentional recollection; triggered involuntarily by the outside world

    Ex: walking somewhere and smelling a familiar fragrance that reminds you of something
  30. explicit memory (declarative)
    intentional and conscious remembering of information that is learned at a specific point in time

    an example is remembering your last vacation
  31. Implicit and explicit memory are part of?
    STM
  32. Long term memory
    the ability to remember extensiv amounts of info from a few minutes, hours, or decades
  33. LTM has three different types of memory?
    • semantic
    • episodic
    • procedural
  34. semantic
    learning and remembering the meaning of words and concepts that are not tied to specific occurrences of events in time

    general facts and info
  35. episodic
    conscious recollection of information from a specific event or point in time; memory which you were a part of; you experienced it

    "i remember when"
  36. procedural
    knowledge of how to do something
  37. Explain the change in episodic and semantic memory in older adults
    episodic: stable into 60s and then slows around 65

    semantic memory: increases into 60s and then starts to decline less substantially
  38. In episodic, there are two types of processes. What are they?
    recall: try to remember without prompts

    recognition: try to recognize from items already provided
  39. what happens to recall?
    it declines

    older adults perform worse than younger adults on recall tests; omit information and repeat items
  40. recognition and old age?
    it isn't bad

    rehearsal strategies are helpful--less efficient at spontaneous use of these strategies
  41. For procedural, what is the problem?
    you remember how to do something but you may have physical limitations
  42. A phenomenon in semantic memory is tip of the tongue experience?
    • trying to retrieve a word or name you are certain you know, but not accessible at tht moment
    • experiences of TOT increase with age
  43. Age differences in encoding versus retrieval
    encoding: you need strategies to remember and increase the efficiency of encoding or retrieval 

    retrieval: older adults tend to spontaneously use less retrieval strategies than older adults
  44. Neuroscience evience of age differences in encoding versus retrieval
    Pet scans show age differences in how the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus work together

    • older= compensation/ prefrontal cortex and hippocampusalways work together
    • older= overactive prefrontal cortex during encoding
  45. Prospective memory
    things you remember having to do in the future-- can be tomorrow, a couple of days from now, etc. 

    gets worse with age; you have a hard time remembering what to do when you get older 

    to remember, elderly have to write things down
  46. Within prospective memory, there are two tasks. What are they?
    event-based tasks: performing an action when a certain external event happens

    • time-based tasks: performing an action after fixed amount of time
    • time-based remembering is more age related
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Chapter 6: Attention and Memory
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Test Two
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