- Wrote Ageless Memory
- He knew how to take in info from the environment and had an exxceptional memory
What was the stereotypical view that he addressed?
elderly forgetting versus youth forgetting the same item. youth is acceptable because they are "just so busy"
Instead, he said that it is about task and context
Task-related differences--> type and context
Explain the idea of task and context
- if its something you're familiar with, you should be able to do it
- If the context is hectic, it throws you off. If it is a normal night and you forget, that's reason to worry.
Information processing model
uses a pc metaphor to explain how people process stimuli
What are the three assumptions of the information-processing model?
- people are active participants in the process
- both quantitative aspects of performance can be examined (how much and type/how relevant)
- Informaiton is processed through a series of hypothetical stages or stores (sensory, short term, and long term)
Compare the steps of IPM to a computer
- info comes in through the outside world--encoding
- from there, you save it/store it in the brain--storage
- when you need it again, you retrieve the information--retrieval
Explain the IPT (Info Processing theory)
stimulus from the environment--> sensory memory--(encoded)--> STM/ working--(encoding)--> LTM
What is the purpose of sensory, STM, and LTM?
- Sensory: holds sensory info
- STM: holds info temporarily for analysis
- LTM: relatively permanent storage
What is the duration of each?
- Sensory: Lasts up to 1/2 sec-2
- STM: 30 seconds
- LTM: relatively permanent
How do you keep somethingin your STM?
How do you go from STM to LTM and back?
STM to LTM: elaborative rehearsal
LTM to STM: retrieval
What is the capacity of each?
- Sensory: unlimited
- STM: 5-9 (7+/-2)
- LTM: relatively unlimited
a brief and almost identical representation of the stimuli that exists in the observable environment
To move it to STM, you need to pay attention or it is lost
functional perspective: attention is composed of separate dimensions serving different functions
Attentional control is linked to the parieto-frontal lobes
How would the elderly struggle with sensory?
they focus on irrelevant information de to parieto-frontal deterioration
Speed of processing?
how quickly it goes from environmental stimuli to LTM that you can store for later use
It is not the whole process that is slowing down. It depends on the task/ what it is you are working with
What are two possible reasons for processing speed reduction?
- inhibitory loss: older adults have a hard time inhibiting irrelevant information
- --> You can teach strategies that decrease this, provide emotionally supportive messages to give a positive effect; beneficial--> when it becomes relevant, better than youth
attentional changes: older adults can still divide their attention. It just depends on the complexity of the two tasks they are doing/ multitaskign is still a possibility
places minimal demands on attentional capacity; you don't put much time into it; info comes in without us being aware
requires all of the available attentional capacity; you need to stop and think of a plan of action
In regards to automatic and effortful, what is the trend?
in the beginning, they begin as effortful and eventually they become automatic.
In certain conditions, things become effortful. Things that were once automatic may well become effortful
3 memory processes
- encoding: process of getting info into the memory system (sensory--> STM)
- storage: the manner in which info is represented and kept in memory (STM-->LTM)
- retrieval: getting info back out of memory (LTM--> STM)
what can encoding be disrupted by?
the decline of selective attention
What helps STM--> LTM?
making something meaningful as opposed to general
Why do older people struggle with retrieval?
- the neurons are dying, meaning connections are weak; it's hard to pull it back out
- limited plasticity
- illnesses such as dementia, Alzheimer's, etc., thus making it difficult for information to be pulled out
- You can teach them retrieval strategies
allows you to solve a problem, make a decision, and learn new information; the active processes and structures involved in holding information in mind
What is working memory used for?
- solve a problem
- make a decision
- learn new information
How are older adults affected by working memory?
- Your ability to stay alert changes
- If you have multiple tasks, it depends on the sequence of the tasks
- Task interference
- Tough juggling; there is a limit; the limit declines with age
the process by which information is held in working memory
- maintenance rehearsal
- elaborative rehearsal
implicit memory (procedural memory)
retrieval of information without conscious or intentional recollection; triggered involuntarily by the outside world
Ex: walking somewhere and smelling a familiar fragrance that reminds you of something
explicit memory (declarative)
intentional and conscious remembering of information that is learned at a specific point in time
an example is remembering your last vacation
Implicit and explicit memory are part of?
Long term memory
the ability to remember extensiv amounts of info from a few minutes, hours, or decades
LTM has three different types of memory?
learning and remembering the meaning of words and concepts that are not tied to specific occurrences of events in time
general facts and info
conscious recollection of information from a specific event or point in time; memory which you were a part of; you experienced it
"i remember when"
knowledge of how to do something
Explain the change in episodic and semantic memory in older adults
episodic: stable into 60s and then slows around 65
semantic memory: increases into 60s and then starts to decline less substantially
In episodic, there are two types of processes. What are they?
recall: try to remember without prompts
recognition: try to recognize from items already provided
what happens to recall?
older adults perform worse than younger adults on recall tests; omit information and repeat items
recognition and old age?
it isn't bad
rehearsal strategies are helpful--less efficient at spontaneous use of these strategies
For procedural, what is the problem?
you remember how to do something but you may have physical limitations
A phenomenon in semantic memory is tip of the tongue experience?
- trying to retrieve a word or name you are certain you know, but not accessible at tht moment
- experiences of TOT increase with age
Age differences in encoding versus retrieval
encoding: you need strategies to remember and increase the efficiency of encoding or retrieval
retrieval: older adults tend to spontaneously use less retrieval strategies than older adults
Neuroscience evience of age differences in encoding versus retrieval
Pet scans show age differences in how the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus work together
- older= compensation/ prefrontal cortex and hippocampusalways work together
- older= overactive prefrontal cortex during encoding
things you remember having to do in the future-- can be tomorrow, a couple of days from now, etc.
gets worse with age; you have a hard time remembering what to do when you get older
to remember, elderly have to write things down
Within prospective memory, there are two tasks. What are they?
event-based tasks: performing an action when a certain external event happens
- time-based tasks: performing an action after fixed amount of time
- time-based remembering is more age related