sccii final

  1. - Can we say that the experience of the contact situation was the same for all groups of Mexican Americans? Why?
    • Early relations had been relatively cordial, but the rapid growth of an Anglo majority after statehood in 1850 doomed efforts to create a bilingual, multiethnic state.
    • As they did in Texas, Anglo-Americans used violence, biased laws, discrimination, and other means to exploit and repress Mexicans in California.
    • Only in New Mexico did Mexican Americans retain some political power and economic clout, mostly because of the relatively large size of the group and their skill in mobilizing for political activity.
    • Thus, the contact situation for Mexican Americans was highly variable by region.
    • Even so, the ultimate result was the creation of minority group status for Mexican Americans
  2. - How were Mexican Americans impacted by the close proximity between their homeland and the US?
    • - close ties with villages and families
    • - this constant movement across the border with Mexico kept the Spanish language and much of the Mexican heritage alive in the Southwest
    • - - For Mexican American women, the consequences of contact were variable even though the ultimate result was a loss of status within the context of the conquest and colonization of the group as a whole
  3. 1. Why is it significant that the first persons brought to what became the U.S. had been baptized?
    - Under English law Christians could not be enslaved. Over time, this criteria was dropped, allowing persons who were both born into Christianity and those persons who became Christians when baptized to be ‘allowed’ to be enslaved. The definition of who could be enslaved changed over time as slavery became institutionalized based upon the perceived racial differences (race as social construct and slavery becomes more and more institutionalized) This change is significant because it was the beginning of using race to distinguish slave from citizen.
  4. 2. What were the conditions of indentured servitude?
    • - The indentured servant agreed to work a certain number of years . After that period they were freed and given land.
    • - Initially colonies were going to use poor indentured servants (many from the British Isles) as labor.
    • - The indenture form was a contract which determined the length and conditions of servitude.
    • - Once the time of servitude was fulfilled, the newly freed individual was given a bushel of corn, a new suit and land.
  5. 3. How did the man known as Antonio come to Jamestown? How is his personal history significant?
    • - Antonio was brought to Jamestown colony in 1621 to work tobacco. At this time racial slavery was not defined by Virginia law. Persons from the British Isles and Africa were brought to the colonies as indentured servants; this status was defined by conditions of servitude.
    • - In 1622 Antonio survived attack by Powhatan Confederacy that killed most on Bennett plantation and famine and disease.
    • - In 1625 he was listed on a census as being ‘Antonio, a Negro,’ a servant.
    • - Between 1625 & 1640 he changed his name to Anthony Johnson and married Mary (who was listed as a Negro servant). They had 4 children.
    • - by 1640 - Anthony and Mary are no longer listed as servants. They had their own property and persons (most likely indentured servants) working for them. They increased their land holdings.
    • - When Anthony and another (White) land-holder questioned the boundaries of their adjoined land, the matter appears to have been settled amicably by both parties, with each party considered to be equal. Anthony made the statement - “I know mine own land.”
    • - As Virginia laws became more restrictive for persons from Africa, Anthony moved his family to Maryland where he leased 300 acres (Tonies Vineyard). Anthony dies on this farm.
    • - When Anthony and his family move to Maryland from Virginia, the Virginia courts declare that his land in Virginia could be seized by the state because Anthony was a Negro and ‘by consequence, an alien.
  6. 4. What is significant about the punishments given to the 3 servants who tried to escape in 1640?
    • - The two White servants got relatively mild punishments; the punishment of the third servant, from Africa, was drastically more severe.
    • — all were to get ‘30 stripes each’ of a ‘whipping’
    • — The 2 White servants also had to serve one additional year of indentured servitude to their initial master; then another 3 years of serving the colony.
    • — In addition to the ‘30 stripes,’ the servant from Africa became a servant for the period of his ‘natural lifetime,’ beginning yet another change that allows for the eventual definition of slavery based on race.
  7. 5. How did the English definition of slavery change? What were the consequences of this change?
    • The English definition of slavery changed from slaves being non-Christian to slaves being non-White.
    • - In 1661 Virginia legally recognized slavery.
    • - In 1662, a change in Virginia law stated that a child’s ‘condition’ was based on its mother’s ‘condition.’ Essentially any child born to slave a woman is also considered a slave. Even children born to slave women who were unwillingly impregnated by White plantation owners or overseers were considered to be slaves.
    • - Eventually slavery becomes a permanent, racially defined, dependent labor force.
  8. 6. What does the term ‘middle passage’ refer to?
    • - ‘Middle passage’ refers to the ‘middle’ leg of a three part, economic journey between England, the west coast of Africa and the Americas.
    • - Slaves were captured and held on the west coast of Africa in barracoons (corrals), under difficult conditions.
    • - These packed into ships with the knowledge that about ½ would die, so about twice as many persons were put onto a ship as was needed for an economic gain. Essentially, the numbers of persons packed onto slave ships was an economic calculation with no regard for the persons themselves.
    • - The conditions for slaves on these ships are: unsanitary, little air flow, poor food, and rampant disease.
    • - Mutinies and suicides were common, but were seldom publically acknowledge since slave traders and plantation owners did not want anyone to conclude that their ‘system’ was problematic for the slaves.
    • Slaves were branded; sometimes on the coast of Africa, sometimes in the Caribbean Islands (or, possible both). Branding was used as a means of breaking spirits of captives, allowing for easier (and more profitable) auction sales.
  9. - Why is it significant that the English law that stated Christians could not be enslaved changed? What was that change?
    From non Christians to non blacks. At least they can get out of slavery as a Christian but then the race card was handed
  10. - How was indentured servitude different from slavery?
    Amount of time and u get land
  11. - What happened to Anthony Johnson’s land when he moved? Why?
    Given to gov. property cant own property
  12. - What is significant about the punishments given to the 3 runaway indentured servants (2 white and 1 black)? Why?
    Only the black one was given life. Made it okay to extend the working time to life time to blacks
  13. - What is meant by the phrase “the condition of a child is based on the condition of the mother”? Why is this significant?
    If moms a slave then the baby is too. Keeps from dads that rape the moms to have free babies
  14. Be able to compare and contrast African Americans and Native Americans.
    • both groups were conquered, colonized (and colonized groups have the greatest trouble assimilating)both conquered, colonized both under a government backed, paternalistic system
    • — In case of Native Americans paternalism largely through BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs) – reservations (reserved lands) and boarding schools
    • - both groups were marginalized, relatively powerless, isolated
    • — For Native Americans – even weaker links to larger society than other marginalized groups
    • - Since about mid 70s, some Native American groups have progressed
    • — Native Americans are not a group that ‘had been’ – they have maintained a sense of people-hood, history and continue despite great hardships
  15. - What do we know about the subsistence technology of the various groups indigenous to what became the U.S.?
    Subsistence technology: primarily hunting, gathering – but hardly all – many lived in somewhat settled villages with gardens; some had cities and agriculture
  16. - What is the relationship between subsistence technology and values and norms? How can this help us understand the values and norms of many Native American cultures?
    A group’s subsistence technology impacts values and norms; a hunting / gathering subsistence technology requires emphasis on values of cooperation, sharing (needed to survive where necessities can be scarce) where solidarity, cohesion are important – very different from the more independent cultural expectations of many European groups; the US, as it developed had even more independence expectations
  17. - How did the world view and religious view of Native Americans differ from the world view and religious view of Europeans? What is the role of humans in the Native American view? What is the overall goal in the Native American view?
    • what is the importance of subsistence technology
    • - Biggest difference: world view – traditional religious views do not acknowledge one god; not just multiple god-figures, but the sacred is considered to be in all of nature, including land, mountains, bodies of water
    • — Humans are only one aspect of the unity: universe – humans are neither lesser than nor greater than nature
    • — Overall goal: to live in harmony with nature (need nature to provide necessities, which are more likely when nature is allowed to self-adjust)
    • - — — Different from Euro-American world view that the world and nature are to be dominated (to be improved); humans are better than, know better than nature; humans should find ways to intervene in nature and have nature bend to the will of humans
  18. In general, how do Native Americans and Euro-Americans differ regarding the relative importance of the group and the individual?
    - native= group/////// euro= individual
  19. - Why do societies that are more hunting and gathering have more egalitarian relationships?
    Structure of society also different: hunting, gathering societies very low on ability to accrue resources, little build up of surplus; result: greater degree of egalitarianism
  20. Both Native Americans on reservations and African Americans in slavery lived under paternalistic control. What were the similarities and differences?
    • Reservation life – Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) – covered all aspects of life (is, therefore paternalistic) – justice, budgets, schools, tribal membership
    • - Relationship with US government paternalistic
    • (similar, not the same as African Americans under slavery)
    • - Different systems of leadership – means of controlling things such as food
    • - Those who cooperate rewarded / if not cooperate, not rewarded
    • Paternalism and the BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs) - Coercive Acculturation: The Dawes Act and Boarding Schools
    • - Coercive acculturation: languages, religions attacked – institutions undermined
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  21. - What effect did ‘termination’ have on some American Indian groups?
    • Greater emphasis, expectations for American Indians to acculturate
    • - 1953 – termination – about 100 tribes were ‘terminated’ – striped of their status as a group recognized by the US government (included private ownership of land and other resources, treaties no longer in effect (actually, very little about these treaties had been honored anyway)
    • - Groups that lost their legal status as tribes also lost other benefits such as health care, which is provided only to persons recognized as Native American by the US government
  22. - What was the primary accomplishment of the attempt at urbanizing American Indians?
    • Attempts to ‘urbanize’ Native Americans – became a failure – it predominately accomplished moving poor American Indians from the poverty of reservations to the poverty of the inner cities
    • - In the cities, American Indians no longer had support of reservation community
    • - Due to inadequate education, ongoing prejudice / discrimination, many American Indians did not get good jobs, did get inadequate housing, etc
    • — Income in cities often higher than reservations, but still very high rate of unemployment
  23. - What happened at Alcatraz? Why did some Native Americans feel they should have Alcatraz?
    • Occupation of Alcatraz Island (by San Francisco Bay) 1969 – the federal prison on Alcatraz had been abandoned and an old treaty allowed any abandoned federal land to become Native American land
    • — Native Americans (largely through American Indian Movement) occupied the island – occupation lasted around 4 years, but did not end with the island becoming Native American territory
  24. - What are potential drawbacks to bringing industrialization to Native American reservations?
    • Attracting Industry to the Reservation – partly due to the availability of resources on reservations, also due to lower overhead, some commercial enterprises have brought manufacturing, jobs onto reservations
    • - However, even this situation has greater benefit for dominant group, less for American Indian group
    • — ‘better’ jobs – such as management go to members of dominant group, while the lesser paying jobs go to members of the reservation – overall, not all that great (income is less, reduced chances of promotions)
    • — for some groups the resources bring danger (ex: radiation) to those mining them
    • Broken Treaties – high number of treaties agreed to in 1800s have been broken by US
    • - some groups have been able to go back to these treaties and gain back some of what had been lost (ex: Maine – asked for $25 billion and 12.5 million acres of land; the got $25 million and 300,000 acres of land)
    • gaming and other development possibilities
    • - as of 2008 more than 400 gaming establishments on Native American reservations (see 6.7 / 6.8)
    • - - other: selling cigarettes tax free; housing nuclear waste
    • Study guide chapter 4
  25. - What does subsistence technology refer to?
    • - subsistence technology changed from agriculture to industrialization
    • - - new forms of energy were added, allowing for greater production
    • - - the direct control of paternalism that kept slaves bound, could not be used under this new subsistence technology
    • - - in industrialization, a cheap and controllable workforce was still needed, but direct control wouldn’t work with a population that had some choices in where to live, where to work, etc.
  26. - What happens to minority-dominant group relations when there is a change in subsistence technology?
    • - - the dominant-minority relationship that works best for ‘those who own the means of production’ is the creation of competition among the low end workers, encouraging these workers to compete for the non-living wage jobs
    • - - at first it was rigid competitive, then fluid competitive (discussed below)
  27. - What is important when a society has an agrarian subsistence technology? What is important when a society has an industrialization subsistence technology?
    • - - agrarian - labor intensive, use of human and or animal power
    • - — ownership of land is important
    • - - industrialization - capital intensive – machines using water, steam, coal, oil, etc. energy sources rather than human / animal power (eventually becoming electricity – wide applications, easily transported)
  28. - What happens when a society is entering into deindustrialization (post-industrialization)?
    • - - reduction in manufacturing
    • - - decrease in supply of blue collar (factory) jobs that pay a living wage
    • - — also many of the blue collar jobs that are left are going overseas
    • - — — companies can drastically reduce overhead (and increase profits) by paying workers a lot less and not having to keep up with safety and environmental concerns in non-regulated countries
    • - - increase in service / information based jobs leads to more white collar / high tech jobs (requiring more education), but do not get a similar increase in income
    • - — still, many low education, low skilled service jobs such as fast food, retail
    • - - again, these changes have impacted a lot
  29. What does credentialism refer to?
    • - - benefits elite because they can ‘afford’ getting more credentials
    • - - afford: cost of the education (tuition, fees, books, transportation) and cost of a family member not being in the labor force
    • - — increase in student debt without the means to pay it off
  30. What is the relationship between industrialization and changes in energy sources????????
    • - - the dominant-minority relationship that works best for ‘those who own the means of production’ is the creation of competition among the low end workers, encouraging these workers to compete for the non-living wage jobs
    • - - at first it was rigid competitive, then fluid competitive (discussed below)
  31. - What is the relationship between minority and dominant groups when the subsistence technology is agrarian? What type of control does the dominant group have over the minority group in this relationship?
    • - capital and the means to purchase machinery are important
    • - — capital / machines are used to do more labor with fewer people / animals
  32. - How does the relationship change if the subsistence technology becomes industrial?
    • - new forms of energy were added, allowing for greater production
    • - - the direct control of paternalism that kept slaves bound, could not be used under this new subsistence technology
    • - - in industrialization, a cheap and controllable workforce was still needed, but direct control wouldn’t work with a population that had some choices in where to live, where to work, etc.
  33. - What are bureaucracies supposedly based on? Is this always a reality? Why do middle management positions evolve? What is the role of specialization in this change?
    • - — bureaucracies - supposedly based on rationality
    • - — — people get jobs, promotions based on performance, abilities
    • - — — reality: bureaucracies are not as rational as they seem
    • - - growth of white-collar jobs and the service sector
    • - — movement from industrial to information / service jobs
    • - — — deindustrialization - part of postindustrial society
    • - — most job growth in service sector; most service sector jobs are no- skill / low skill requirements — but there is variation, some do require more education, etc. and have larger salaries
  34. - What are extractive jobs? Manufacturing jobs? Service jobs? Why is education important now?
    • - extractive (primary) jobs - produce raw materials
    • - manufacturing (secondary) jobs - transform raw materials into finished products
    • - service (tertiary) jobs - nothing is produced - services are provide
    • - growing importance of education
    • - - most problematic for groups created due to colonization
    • - — adequate education, etc. harder to get
  35. - What is the dual labor market? – the primary labor market? – the secondary labor market? How does the idea of a split labor market fit into this? Using Marxist terminology who are capitalists? – who are laborers?
    • - dual labor market
    • - - primary labor market — stable employment, decent wages
    • - — jobs in large bureaucracies - more secure, etc.
    • - - secondary labor market — unstable employment, poor wages
    • - — competitive market - low-paying, low-skilled jobs - not secure; lack benefits
    • - — split labor market - within the secondary labor market
    • - split labor market
    • - - based on Marxism which sees 2 and only 2 classes (socio-economic statuses)
    • - — capitalists - own the means of production
    • - — labor - sell their labor for subsistence wages
    • - - there are divisions within the secondary labor market (this is the split)
    • - split labor market - there are at least 2 divisions within the secondary labor market
    • - - all sell labor for subsistence wages
  36. - How does the existence of a split labor market help capitalists?
    • - - at least one group resembles the capitalist regarding perceived racial grouping and or ethnicity
    • - - at least one group does not resemble the capitalist regarding perceived racial grouping and or ethnicity
    • - - creates an advantage for capitalists - keep the split labor markets in competition with each other
    • - - therefore capitalists win because their overhead is lower, since they can spend less $ on paying labor (split labor markets are each willing to take the job for less $ since something is better than nothing)
    • - - it is often to the capitalists advantage to further stir things up by bringing attention to racial / ethnic differences
    • -
    • - competition with White Ethnic groups
    • - - before we discussed the large influx of European immigrants into the US in mid to later 1800s
    • - - at the time when Blacks are beginning to migrate north, European immigrants beginning to have upward social mobility - as Ethnic Whites leave low income housing, communities, Blacks more in
    • - — however, White Ethnics still dealing with prejudice, discrimination from elite Whites
    • - — jobs, adequate housing still a struggle for many
    • - — and elite Whites - wanting to reduce their overhead / increase profits - use incoming Blacks as strikebreakers, scabs when Ethnic Whites tried to form unions
    • - — increased inter-racial problems at low end of economic hierarchy
  37. - What does globalization refer to?
    • - world is getting ‘smaller’ - we are tied to other nations, other cultures through: trade, information sharing (etc. computers), transportation (taking a plane to Japan or ???)
    • - - we can look at the relationship between the US and other countries as similar to dominant groups within US to minority status groups
    • - - U.S. has become an economic, political, and military world power
    • - - Our worldwide ties have created new minority groups through population movement and have changed the status of others.
    • - - Dominant-minority relations in the U.S. have been increasingly played out on an international state as the world has essentially "shrunk" in size and become more interconnected by international organizations.
  38. - Why would a society shift from paternalistic to competitive relationships? What is the distinction between rigid and fluid competitive relationships?
    • - industrialization and the shift from paternalistic to rigid competitive group relations
    • - - industrialization began in England in mid 1700s, then to Europe and US
    • - - use of machines & other energy sources leads to increase in production, increase in economy, available goods, services
    • - — — from agrarian / paternalistic to industrial / competitive
    • - US as an agrarian society - relationships between groups is paternalistic, with dominant groups paternalistic to minority groups (example: slavery, Native American reservations where minority groups are – supposedly – looked after for their own ‘best interests’ (reality is that the best interests of the majority is promoted)
    • - shift from rigid to fluid competitive relationships
    • - - The rigid competitive systems (such as Jim Crow) associated with earlier phases of industrialization have given way to fluid competitive systems of group relations.
    • - - In fluid competitive relations, there are no formal or legal barriers to competition. Compared with previous systems, the fluid competitive system is closer (not there yet) to the American ideal of an open, fair system of stratification in which effort and competence are rewarded and race, ethnicity, gender, religion, and other “birthmarks” are not as important
  39. What is the relationship between race, socio-economic status (SES), power and authority?
    - - race is about power relations between groups of people and groups that are differentially situated in society according to socio-economic status (SES), access to power, authority far-reaching consequences
  40. - - Why is the social deficit approach to attempting to understand stratification inappropriate?
    • - African Americans said to be dysfunctional due to 'matriarchal family structure’
    • - - reality: those African American families that are matriarchal – it is largely due to constraints from society at large (rational decision making)
    • - for Chicano families being patriarchal is the 'problem'
    • - above are social deficit approaches, based on cultural misperceptions
  41. - - What does ‘fictive kin’ refer to? Why are extended kinship systems important in some sub-cultures?
    • - importance of extended kinship systems informal support networks
    • - - patterns of fictive kin, extended kin, support networks not just shaped by culture are often the result of social conditions
    • - social ties that are based on neither consanguinal (blood ties) nor affinal ("by marriage") ties, in contrast to true kinship ties.
  42. - - What is the relationship between racism and limited resources?
    • - impact of racism creates a family of limited resources
    • - - increased likelihood of female headed households, out of wedlock births, divorce, co-habitation
  43. - What impact does globalization and deindustrialization have on gender relations? How does increased education for girls and women impact gender roles?
    • gender inequality in a globalizing, post-industrial world
    • - - deindustrialization and globalization are transforming gender relations along with dominant-minority relations
    • - - in many traditional and sexist societies, women are moving away from their traditional “wife/mother” roles, taking on new responsibilities, and facing new challenges
    • - - the changing role of women is also shaped by other characteristics of a modern society: smaller families, high divorce rates, and rising numbers of single mothers who must work to support their children as well as themselves
    • - - in part, the trends worldwide parallel those in the United States
    • - - according to a recent United Nations report, indicators such as rising education levels for women and lower rates of early marriage and childbirth show that women around the world are moving out of their traditional status
  44. - - How was life in the rural south different from and similar to life in the urban north for African Americans?
  45. - - What is de jure segregation? What is the relationship between de jure segregation, Plessey v Ferguson and Brown v Board of Education?
    • - de jure segregation initiated with Supreme Court Decision of Plessey v Ferguson
    • - de jure – by law
    • - (1896) Plessey v Ferguson - about public transportation, racism won
    • - - illustrates importance of elected officials who are in a position to nominate, appoint other officials
  46. - - What was the Plessey v Ferguson ruling? How did this impact US society?
    • - - initial case about public transportation - could public transportation have different accommodations for Blacks and Whites – Supreme Court finding? – yes, can have separate as long as they are equal
    • - - unfortunately the result was separate (applied also to schools, recreation, housing, etc) – but by no means equal
  47. - - What is de facto segregation? How voluntary is de facto segregation?
    - De Facto segregation - voluntary? - not really – school boards, real estate boards, zoning boards make decisions that are actually racist, but not officially sanctioned by legal system
  48. - - What does the phrase ‘race is a social construct’ refer to? Why is it important to understand that race is a social construct?
    • - since race is a social construct, the consequences are social – which is why it is important to examine race – learn how and why it impacts our social environment
    • - - NO biological proof of different 'races' or biological differences to determine 'race'
  49. - - What are the differences between race and ethnicity? What are racial ethnic groups?
    - Race- : is a social construct - that is societies determine what the criteria for one 'race' or another is and then create a hierarchy where the dominant class puts themselves at the top of the hierarchy
  50. - Ethnicity- perceived cultural differences; through processes of socialization
    • - racial ethnic groups socially subordinated / culturally distinct groups within US
    • - 1. systematic discrimination
    • - 2. distinctive cultural arrangement
  51. - - Are the categories and the relative ranking of racial groups static?
    - racial ethnic groups / proportions of racial ethnic groups have been changing in US and will continue changing
  52. - - How does the idea that White families are the natural, normal families impact society?
    • - in general White families are considered to be the dominant group, the 'natural' or 'normal' condition; ‘others’ are labeled as different, as other races; are devalued
    • - - racial order impacts ALL families: White and the 'Other'
    • - - this racial order, this hierarchy determines degrees of power
    • - family is the outcome of the pressures put on individual families by the institutions / structures surrounding it
  53. - what is considered a ‘normal’ family (and, therefore, the ‘correct’ family type) is determined by those with greater power; their values, norms, priorities are often different (example: impact of economic institution determines neighborhood, school, lifestyle, how / where children play, etc)
Card Set
sccii final