Networking Test 2 (Chapter 6)

  1. Coaxial Cable
    -Consists of a central copper wire covered with dielectric (plastic insulator) sheiled by foil wrapping or braid with a plenum or PVC outer jacket

    -Types of coax vary by: size of central core and cable impedance

    -Radio grade (RG) classification
  2. Thicknet (10Base5)
    -Original cabling used in Ethernet networks

    -Typically used vampire and drop (DIX) cables
  3. Thinnet (10Base2)
    -Smaller in diameter than Thicknet and is easier to work with

    -Uses BNC connectors (barrel connectors or T connectors)
  4. Thinnet Coaxial Cable Advantages
    -Easier to install (than Thicknet)

    -Small in diameter

    -Shielding can reduce EMI and RFI
  5. Thinnet Coaxial Cable Disadvantages
    -When cable breaks, the network goes down

    -Cable must be grounded to prevent interference

    -More expensive than twisted pair cable

    -Connectors and compatible NICs can be expensive

    _Does not support high-speed transmissions
  6. Shielded Twisted Pair
    -Made up of pairs of copper wires that are twisted together

    -Subject to near-end crosstalk and EMI
  7. Shielded Twisted Pair Advantages
    -Shielding reduces EMI and RFI

    -can be used with RJ connectors, which are common and inexpensive, instead of the IBM hermaphroditic connectors
  8. Shielded Twisted Pair Disadvantages
    -Must be properly grounded

    -More expensive than UTP

    -Difficult to terminate
  9. Unshielded Twisted Pair
    -Colour-coded copper wires without insulation 

    -Most common implementation of copper media

    -Different categories determined by: numbers of twisted pairs, transmission rates, implementations...
  10. Unshielded Twisted Pair Advantages
    -It's inexpensive and easy to install

    -It's easy to terminate 

    -It's widely used and tested

    -It's easy to maintain and troubleshoot

    -Patch cables come precut in most popular lengths

    -It supports many network types
  11. Unshielded Twisted Pair Disadvantages
    -Susceptible to interference 

    -Prone to damage during installation if mishandled

    -Prone to physical damage if routed through traffic areas and not protected

    -Distance limits are often misunderstood or not followed
  12. Fiber Optic Cable
    -is constructed of a center core of silica, extruded glass, or plastic

    -transmits specific types of light waves

    -uses laser light or LED as its light source

    -transmits waves that can travel long distances with little attenuation

    -can use single fibers or pairs up to 36 fiber strands
  13. Fiber Optic Cable Advantages
    -It can be installed over long distances

    -It provides large amounts of bandwidth 

    -Not susceptible to EMI or RFI

    -Cannot be tapped easily, so security is better
  14. Fiber Optic Cable Disadvantages
    -Most expensive media to purchase and install

    -Requires appropriate conduit for outside use

    -Must match the cable types to the application 

    -Strict installation guidelines must be met for the cabling to be certified
  15. Network Interface Cards
    -Provides a device with a physical connection to the network

    As a communication source, NIC:

    -->receives the data packets from the Network layer. 

    -->Attaches its MAC address to the data packets

    -->Attaches MAC address of destination device to the data packet

    -->Converts data into packets

    -->Converts packets into electrical, light, or radio signals to transmit 

    -->Provides the physical connection to the media

    As a destination device, NIC: 

    -->Provides the physical connection to the media

    -->Translates the electrical, light, or radio signals into data

    -->Reads the destination MAC address to see whether it matches the devices's own address

    -->Passes the packet to the Network layer if the destination MAC address matches its own
  16. Hubs
    -The central point of connection for cable segments in a physical star topology, technically a multi-repeater for use with twisted pair cable

    -Hubs create a logical bus wired ad physical star
  17. Specialty Hubs
    • Managed Hubs 
    • -Support remote management and monitoring 

    • Switched Hubs
    • -Integrate functionality from switches into the hub 

    • Intelligent Hubs
    • -Have on board processors than can perform various functions such as automatic error reporting, monitoring and reporting network traffic statistics...
  18. Hub Advantages
    -Cheap and readily available

    -Easy to deploy and maintain 

    -Can connect media operating at different speeds
  19. Hub Disadvantages
    -Simple hubs extend the collision domain so collisions can still occur

    -Cannot filter the information passing through them so all packets transmit to all segments
  20. Switches
    -Are miltiport bridges that function at the Data Link layer of the OSI model

    -Control and manage data transmissions

    -Often look and are commonly used as hubs but are more sophisticated devices 

    -Each port of a switch makes a decision whether to forward data packets to the attached network

    -Keeps track of all attached nodes MAC addresses and the port to which each node is connected (can help filter traffic and eliminate unwanted congestion)

    -Popular with network admin
  21. Switches Advantages
    -Limit the collision domain

    -Segment the network into multiple segments with separate collision domains 

    -Support intelligent management capabilities

    -Can limit broadcast traffic propagated between segments
  22. Switches Disadvantages
    -Most expensive than a hub of the same size

    -Can be complex and difficult to configure

    -Additional optional functionality can add to the potential complexity
  23. Routers
    -Network communication device used to connect two or more networks or network types

    -Changes the packet's size, format, and addressing to fit the destination network

    -Determines best path to destination based on static routing or dynamic routing
  24. Static Routing
    Network admin manually configures route into the router's routing table
  25. Dynamic Routing
    Adjusts automatically to network topology or traffic changes based on information it receives from other routers
  26. Routers Advantages
    -Limits the collision domain 

    -Can connect networks using different media and architectures

    -Determines the best path for a packet to reach another network

    -Can filter or block broadcasts
  27. Routers Disadvantages
    -More expensive than a bridge 

    -Must be used with routable protocols

    -Can be difficult to configure and maintain

    -Makes troubleshooting communication problems more complex

    -Slower than a bridge due to increased processing and routing updates sent between routers
  28. Brouters
    -Hybrid network communication device that combines the functionality of routers and bridges 

    -Any requirements that calls for a bridge or a router  can be filled by a brouter 

    -Can be programmed to function in a specific way
  29. Brouter Advantages
    -Same advantages using a bridge or router
  30. Brouter Disadvantages
    -Cost

    -Complexity
  31. Gateways
    -Network communication device used to connect dissimilar network and devices

    -Tends to be expensive, difficult to configure, and slow
  32. Common Gateway Applications
    -Mail gateway: Transfer mail between different types or email servers

    -Host gateway: Enables PCs to communicate natively with host computers
  33. Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
    -determines a main bridge (root) when there is more than one bridge 

    -prevent bridging loops
  34. Encapsulation
    -Process of wrapping a network packet inside another network packet

    -Helps convert data fro passing between architectures
  35. Multistation Access Units (MAUs)
    -Provides the function on a Token Ring network that a hub or switch provides on an Ethernet network 

    -Ports used to connect the MAUs are labeled "Ring In" and "Ring Out"

    -Each token (data packets) is received by every node in the path in order. If the device isn't the destination, it restransmits the token, so the signal is constantly being boosted. 

    -Each device acts as a repeater
  36. MAUs Advantages
    -Easy to install and configure

    -Have a long, reliable track record

    -Easy to troubleshoot and sometimes self-healing
  37. MAUs Disadvantages
    -More expensive than Ethernet hubs or switches

    -Compatible hardware is expensive and can be hard to locate

    -Designed specifically for 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps Token ring, cannot be mixed

    -Based on older technology, support a max bandwidth of 16 Mbps
  38. Virtual LANs (VLANs)
    -A LAN which devices are logically configured to communication as if they were attached to the same network without regard to their physical  location
  39. Use of VLANs
    Create broadcast domains: sets of nodes that receive broadcasts in a group as if they were all on (and the only nodes on) the same physical segment

    -Defined by the IEEE 802.1P and IEEE 802.1Q standards

    Segregate nodes by the function they perform: often used as a form of segregated network security
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Networking Test 2 (Chapter 6)
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Chapter 6
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