ETC and kidney

  1. concede
    admit that something is true, yield, surrender
  2. complex I
    • directly uses NADH
    • FMN (coenzyme)
    • Coenzyme Q (ubiquinone) reduced to ubiquinol 
    • 2H transfered to coenzyme Q
    • 4H pumped into inter membrane space
    • e goes to complex III
  3. complex II
    • part of TCA cycle too
    • succinate to fumarate with succinate dehydrogenase
    • FADH2 ubiquinol goes to complex III
    • H is not pumped
    • 2H transfered to Coenzyme Q
  4. complex III
    • happens 2X
    • CoQ transfers e to cytochrome c (protein with heme groups) w/ Fe
    • CoQH2, 2H gets passed to O2, pump 2H across
  5. complex IV
    • oxygen acceptor, produces water
    • cytochrome c oxidized
    • 2H pumped through proton motive force
  6. chemiosmotic coupling
    large -220kJ/mol of energy from H protons leaving inter membrane, create ATP
  7. conformation coupling
    ADP + Pi comes close together to form ATP
  8. amounts of ATP produced for NADH and FADH2
    • NADH (2.5 ATP)
    • FADH2 (1.5 ATP)
  9. products of glycolysis
    • 2ATP 
    • 2NADH (5ATP or 2ATP depending on which shuttle it uses)
    • malate aspartate is more efficient than glycerol-3P
  10. product of pyruvate decarboxylase
    2NADH (5ATP)
  11. product of TCA
    • 6 NADH (15 ATP)
    • 2 FADH2 (3ATP)
    • 2GTP (2ATP)
  12. total ATP from aerobic respiration
  13. why do prokaryotes get more ATP than eukarotes
    no membrane bound organelles to shuttle things around to
  14. what does glycolysis do?
    convert glucose to two molecules of pyruvate
  15. what are the irreversible enzymes in glycolysis?
    hexokinase, PFK, pyruvate kinase
  16. what does the citric acid cycle do? what are the irreversible enzymes
    • use acetyl coA to produce electron carriers for ETC
    • Citrate synthase (CS), IDH (isocitrate dehydrogenase), alpha-ketoglutarate dehdrogenase)
  17. where does glyconeogenesis occur and what are its main enzymes
    • liver and kidney
    • pyruvate carboxylase (pyruvate to oxaloacetate)
    • PEPCK (oxaloacetate to PEP)
    • FBPase (fructose 1,6-bisP to fructose 6P)
    • glucose-6-phosphatase (g6p to glucose)
  18. human plasma osmolarity
    300 mOsm/L
  19. what is the purpose of filtration in kidney?
    • regulation of plasma osmolarity, pH and blood volume
    • ensures the RBC and protein doesn't leave
  20. what consists of extracellular fluid
    • plasma, capillary membrane (things can move back and forth) and interstitial fluid
    • albumin is high in plasma
  21. what ions are high in intracellular fluid
    K+ and phosphate
  22. ions high in extracellular fluid
    Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, HCO3-
  23. difference between active primary and secondary transport
    • primary uses ATP
    • secondary uses energy stored in ion concentration
  24. how does the osmolarity of plasma, interstitial fluid and intracellular fluid compare
    • they are all equal
    • water can get through any membrane
  25. secretion
    add things into tube (urea, K+, NH3, H+)
  26. reabsorption
    go back into our body, out of tube to maintain osmolarity and homeostasis
  27. what pushes the filtration in kidney?
    • blood pressure-hydrostatic pressure of glomerular (high)
    • hydrostatic pressure of Bowman's space is small (counter to Pressure of glomerular)
  28. descending limb of loop of Henle
    • closer to medulla (concentration increases)
    • water flow out
  29. ascending limb of loop of Henle
    ions flow out of tube b/c of lower osmolarity in body
  30. antiduretic hormone and aldosterone
    • prevents dilute urine
    • acts on salts, pump salt
  31. vasa recta
    • reabsorb water when descending limb lets out water
    • reabsorb salt that flows out from the tube
  32. purpose of loop of henle
    to concentrate urine
Card Set
ETC and kidney