first aid psych

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  1. positive reinforcement
    • giving a dog a treat to train a new behavior
    • positive = giving
  2. negative reinforcement
    • taking away a noxious smell to train a new behavior
    • negative = removing
  3. positive punishment
    • beating a cat to extinguish unwanted behavior
    • positive = giving
  4. negative punishment
    • taking candy away from a kid to extinguish unwanted behavior
    • negative = removing
  5. transference
    • patient projects onto physician
    • shrink reminds patient of dad
  6. countertransference
    • physician projects onto patient
    • patient reminds physician of younger brother
  7. acting out
    • using actions as a physical manifestation of how you feel
    • tantrum
  8. denial
    • purposefully not letting yourself believe something happened
    • no no no, the test must be wrong, I don't have cancer
  9. repression
    • your brain makes you forget something happened, and you don't even realize it
    • no, I never went to counseling when my parents got divorced
  10. suppression
    • knowing something happened/will happen, but just for a little while, you put it out of your mind
    • mature!
    • not studying/thinking about the boards on the day before you take them
  11. displacement
    • treating others poorly because of what happened to you
    • eg mother yells at child b/c husband yelled at her
  12. projection
    • wanting to do something bad, so you assume others do it
    • husband wants to sleep with the neighbor, so he accuses his wife of cheating
  13. dissociation
    • temporary drastic change in personality, memory, consciousness, behavior to avoid emotional stress
    • no, that happened to Jane, I'm Carly. Or Buster going into a "coma"
  14. fixation
    • not moving on in development
    • med students are still all adolescents!
  15. regression
    • going back to early ways of dealing with the world
    • I never threw tantrums until med school
    • potty-trained children begin bed-wetting while hospitalized
  16. idealization
    • thinking you and everyone else and everything else is just peachy
    • America is the best country ever!
  17. identification
    • acting like someone who has more power
    • abused children become abusers
  18. intellectualization
    • distancing yourself by using facts
    • patient with cancer only talks about 5-year survival while in therapy session
  19. rationalization
    • making stuff up to avoid self blame/make it not seem so bad
    • turns out, she was crazy!
  20. isolation
    • talking about things but not showing emotion
    • describing murder in graphic detail without emotional response
  21. passive aggression
    • not doing what is expected in order to get back at people
    • leaving the toilet seat up
  22. reaction formation
    • unconsciously doing something completely opposite because you shouldn't do what you want to do. The opposite thing conflicts with you value system
    • becoming a priest
  23. sublimation
    • replacing an unacceptable with with a similar course of action that does not conflict with your personal value system
    • mature!
    • cleaning the apartment really well b/c you're nervous about studying for boards
  24. splitting
    • everyone is either all good or all bad at different times, associated with borderline personality disorder
    • all therapists are rude to me, but all the nurses are just swell
  25. altruism
    • alleviating negative feelings with unsolicited generosity
    • mature!
    • committing the evil act of taking the boards and then going to Guatemala to serve
  26. humor
    • appreciating the amusing nature of intense situations
    • mature!
    • joking about doing all of the mature defenses while studying for the boards
  27. what age of children get abused physically
    40% under 1 yo
  28. what age of children get abused sexually
    9-12 yo
  29. who physically abuses kids?
    moms
  30. who sexually abuses kids?
    males who know the victim
  31. what might you not give a kid in child neglected and do you have to report it?
    • food, shelter, education, supervision, affection
    • YES! CPS has to know if you suspect it
  32. vulnerable child syndrome
    • thinking a kid is super vulnerable to injury/illness, usually after something bad happens to the kid. Often results in missed school and the parents have the kid going to the doctor for every little thing
    • a kid almost dies in a freak accident, so parents don't let the kid go to friends' houses
  33. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
    • onset before age 12, often continued into adulthood
    • multiple settings
    • hyperactivity, impulsivity, or inattention
    • normal intelligence
  34. autism spectrum
    • must present in early childhood
    • poor social interactions, social communication deficits, repetitive/ritualized behaviors, restricted interests
    • may have intellectual disability
  35. Rett syndrome
    • X-linked dominant (males die in utero or shortly after birth)
    • normal until age 1-4 then regress with going back in development, losing verbal abilities, intellectual disability, ataxia, hand-wringing (jittery hand motions)
  36. conduct disorder
    • before age 18
    • repetitive, pervasive behavior violating rights, damaging property, stealing, hurting animals
    • go on to develop antisocial personality disorder
  37. oppositional defiant disorder
    hostil defiant behavior towards authority figures without violation of serious social norms
  38. separation anxiety disorder
    • usually 7-9 years
    • overwhelming fear when away from home or parents/gaurdian
    • makes up physical symptoms to stay home from school often
  39. Tourette syndrome
    • onset before 18
    • more than one year of sudden, recurrent, nonrhythmic motor and vocal tics
    • vocal=grunt, swear, click, etc
    • motor=twitch etc
  40. dissociative amnesia
    inability to recall important personal information after trauma/stress
  41. dissociative fugue
    abrupt travel or wandering during a period of dissociate amnesia(inability to recall personal information after trauma/stress)
  42. dissociative identity disorder
    • multiple personality disorder (2 or more)
    • often with sexual abuse, PTSD, depression, substance abuse, borderline personality disorder, somatiform conditions
  43. depersonaization disorder
    persistent feelings of detachment from your body, thoughts, perceptions, actions
  44. derealization disorder
    persistent feelings of detachment from you environment
  45. EEG for delirium, and how do you treat (what setting)
    • diffuse slowing on EEG
    • haloperidol (benzos for alcohol withdrawal)
    • think about delirium when acute onset, inpatient setting, waxing waning level of consciousness
    • increased risk in patients with dementia (dementia distinguished by not causing changes in consciousness)
  46. dementia workup in elderly
    depression screen, TSH, B12
  47. schizophrenia (and what do you see on brain imaging?)
    • 6 months of 2+ symptoms, one being psychosis
    • 1. delusions (psychosis)
    • 2. hallucinations (psychosis)
    • 3. disordered speech (psychosis)
    • 4. disorganized/catatonic behavior
    • 5. negative symptoms (affective flattening, avolition, anhedonia, asociality, alogia)
    • ventriculomegally on imaging
  48. brief psychotic disorder
    • <1 month of 2+ symptoms, one being psychosis (often stress related)
    • 1. delusions (psychosis)
    • 2. hallucinations (psychosis)
    • 3. disordered speech (psychosis)
    • 4. disorganized/catatonic behavior
    • 5. negative symptoms (affective flattening, avolition, anhedonia, asociality, alogia)
  49. schizophreniform disorder
    • 1-6 months of decline in function with 2+ symptoms, one being psychosis
    • 1. delusions (psychosis)
    • 2. hallucinations (psychosis)
    • 3. disordered speech (psychosis)
    • 4. disorganized/catatonic behavior
    • 5. negative symptoms (affective flattening, avolition, anhedonia, asociality, alogia)
  50. schizoaffective disorder
    • >2 weeks of hallucinations or delusions and other schizophrenic symptoms with temporary episodes of major mood disorder added on
    • hallucinations and delusions must persist in between major mood episodes
  51. mood disorder with psychotic features
    persistent major mood disorder with periods of delusions or hallucinations
  52. delusional disorder
    >1 month of a fixed false belief that does not impair function
  53. folie a deux
    a shared delusional disorder (>1 month of a fixed false belief that does not impair function)
  54. hypnagogic v hypnopompic
    • hypnagoigic = while going to sleep
    • hypnopompic = while waking from sleep
    • both may be seen in narcolepsy
  55. manic episode
    • at least 1 week of 3+ DIG FAST
    • distractibility
    • irresponsibility (pleasure seeking w/out regard to consequences)
    • grandiosity (self esteem)
    • flight of ideas
    • activity(more goal-directed)/psychomotor agitation
    • sleepless (without need for sleep)
    • talking with pressured speech
  56. hypomanic episode
    • at least 4 days of 3+ DIG FAST without marked impairment
    • distractibility
    • irresponsibility
    • grandiosity
    • flight of ideas
    • activity(more goal-directed)/psychomotor agitation
    • sleepless (without need for sleep)
    • talking with pressured speech
  57. bipolar 1
    at least one manic episode
  58. bipolar 2
    at least one hypomanic episode and a depressive episode
  59. cyclothymic disorder
    at least 2 years of hypomanic symptoms and mild depressive symptoms
  60. major depressive disorder
    • at least 2 weeks of 5+ SIG DE CAPS with 1 being depressed mode or anhedonia
    • sleep disturbance
    • interest loss
    • guilt/worthlessness
    • depressed mood
    • energy loss
    • concentration difficulty
    • appetite/weight change
    • psychomotor retardation/agitation
    • suicidal ideations
  61. dysthymia (what is other name and )
    • persistent depressive disorder
    • at least 2 years of depressive symptoms (can be major)
  62. depression with atypical features
    • mood reactivity (very brief pleasure/mood increases)
    • hypersomnia
    • hyperphagia
    • leaden paralysis
    • long-standing interpersonal rejection sensitivity
  63. maternal blues description and treatment
    • depressed affect, tearfulness, fatigure
    • resolving within 10 days
    • follow up at 10 days to assess for postpartum depression
  64. postpartum depression description
    • often within 4 weeks of delivery
    • greater than 10 days of depressed affect, anxiety, poor concentration
  65. postpartum psychosis
    • often within 4 weeks of delivery
    • mood-congruent delusions, hallucinations, thoughts of harming baby/self
  66. normal grief description
    shock, denial, guilt, sadness, anxiety, yearning, somatic symptoms, hallucinations
  67. pathologic grief
    • grief with functional impairment
    • can have major depressive disorder
  68. panic attack
    • at least 4 of
    • palpitations
    • chest pain
    • sweating
    • SOB
    • choking
    • abdominal distress/nausea
    • fear of dying
    • fear of going crazy/losing control
    • depersonalization/derealization
    • paresthesias
    • lightheadedness
    • chills
    • shaking
  69. panic disorder
    • at least 1 panic attack followed by 1+ month of 1+ of
    • persistent concern for additional attacks
    • worry about consequences of attack
    • behavioral change related to attack
  70. specific phobia
    • fear of a presence/anticipation of an object or situation
    • recognizing that the fear is excessive
  71. social anxiety disorder
    • subtype of specific phobia for embarassment social situations
    • eg fear of speaking
    • eg fear of using public bathrooms
  72. agoraphobia
    • associated with panic disorder, but a subtype of specific phobia for 1 of
    • open spaces
    • closed spaces
    • using public transportation
    • being in lines
    • being in crowds
    • leaving home alone
  73. generalized anxiety disorder
    > 6 months of anxiety unrelated to a specific person, situation, event
  74. adjustment disorder
    • less than 6 months unless presence of chronic stressor
    • anxiety or depressive symptoms causing impairment after an identified psychosocial stressor (divorce, illness)
  75. obsessive-compulsive disorder
    • obsessions and compulsions
    • ego-dystonic (behavior inconsistent with your own beliefs and attitudes)
    • eg the good doctor
  76. body dismorphic disorder
    • emotional distress or impaired functioning from a preoccupation with a minor or imagined defect in appearance
    • often seek repeated cosmetic treatment
  77. obsession
    recurring, intrusive thoughts, feelings, or sensations
  78. compulsion
    performance of a repetitive action that partly relieves an obsession
  79. post traumatic stress disorder
    • trauma (or witnessed traumatic event) with more than 1 month of significant distress or impaired social-occupational function
    • re-experiencing common (flashbacks, nightmares), avoidance of certain stimuli, changes in cognition/mood, increased arousal
  80. acute stress disorder
    • trauma (or witnessed traumatic event) with 3 days to 1 month of significant distress or impaired social-occupational function
    • re-experiencing common (flashbacks, nightmares), avoidance of certain stimuli, changes in cognition/mood, increased arousal
  81. malingering
    • conscious
    • secondary gain (avoiding work, obtaining compensation)
    • complaints cease after gain
    • note: will not do a diagnostic test
  82. factitious disorder imposed on self
    • Munchausen syndrome
    • intentional production of symptoms
    • primary gain (internal, assuming sick role)
    • note: big history, willing to undergo invasive procedure
  83. factitious disorder imposed on another
    • Munchausen syndrome by proxy
    • intentional production of symptoms
    • primary gain (assuming sick role by proxy)
    • note: elder/child abuse
  84. somatic symptom disorder
    • unintentional production of symptoms
    • unconscious drive
    • non-neuro complaint (pain, fatigue)
    • note: persistent thoughts and anxiety about symptoms, and may co-occur with medical illness
  85. conversion disorder
    • unintentional production of symptoms
    • unconscious drive
    • loss of sensory or motor function loss (paralysis, blindness, mutism)
    • note: often follows acute stressor, la belle indifference (often)
  86. illness anxiety disorder
    • "hypochondriasis"
    • preoccupation with having or getting a serious illness despite medical evaluation and assurance and minimal symptoms
    • note: technically a "somatic symptom and related disorders" disorder
  87. pseudocyesis
    false belief that you are pregnant due to any and all signs and symptoms of pregnancy except for having a fetus. That would just be called pregnancy
  88. personality disorder
    • rigid maladaptive pattern of behavior causing subjective distress or impaired functioning that the person is usually unaware of
    • must be 18 yo
  89. cluster A commonality and genetic risk
    • inability to develop meaningful social relationships
    • genetic association with schizophrenia
  90. cluster B
    • emotional/erratic
    • genetic association with mood disorders and substance abuse
  91. cluster C
    • fearful
    • genetic association with anxiety disorders
  92. paranoid personality disorder
    • cluster A
    • distrusting and suspicious, thinking everyone is trying to screw you over, use projection as a defense mechanism
  93. schizoid personality disorder
    • cluster A
    • voluntary and totally content with social withdrawal, limited emotional expression
    • schizoiD is Distant
  94. schizotypal personality disorder
    • cluster A
    • eccentric appearance, odd beliefs and magical thinking, interpersonally awkward
    • schizotypaL is Luna Lovegood
  95. antisocial personality disorder
    • cluster B
    • disregarding and violating others' rights, criminal and impulsive, history of conduct disorder
    • must be 18+ with history of conduct disorder before 15
    • "antisocietal"
  96. borderline personality disorder
    • cluster B
    • unstable mood and interpersonal relationships, impulsive, shopping sprees and casual sex, self-mutilation, suicidal, feeling empty, always splitting as ego defense
    • she went to Borders, bought every book and immediately decided some where incredible and others were trash; went home with someone she met there, but left in the morning to cut lines in her wrist trying to commit suicide because it left her feeling empty
  97. histrionic personality disorder
    • cluster B
    • excessive emotionality (either direction), excitability, attention seeking, sexually provocative, overly concerned with appearance
    • a histrionic is an actor
  98. narcissistic personality disorder
    • cluster B
    • grandiose with a sense of entitlement, requiring the praise of others while lacking empathy, demanding the best and flying off the handle when criticized
  99. avoidant personality disorder
    • cluster C
    • so sensitive to rejection and so timid with feelings of inadequacy that despite wanting relationships, you avoid them
  100. obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
    • cluster C
    • preoccupation with perfectionism and control, ego-syntonic (behavior consistent with values and beliefs)
  101. dependent personality disorder
    • cluster C
    • submissive and clingy with a need to be taken care of by others and a low self-confidence, often resulting in abuse relationships
  102. anorexia nervosa (and refeeding syndrome)
    • BMI under 18.5 or tended that way due to excessive dieting, exercise, binging and purging because of an overvaluation of body image
    • refeeding is within 10 days of when you make them eat, their insulin shoots up, buliding muscle and consuming ATP, which crashes their phosphates resulting in arrhythmias/CNS issues
  103. bulimia nervosa
    at least once a week for 3 months binging with compensatory behavior that doesn't quite work, but still having an overvaluation of body image
  104. binge eating disorder
    episodic binging without compensatory behavior
  105. is transvestism gender dysphoria?
    no, it's paraphilia because you want to wear clothing of the other gender
  106. gender dysphoria
    distressed or impaired functioning because of a desire to be the opposite gender (not necessarily sex)
  107. transsexualism
    • a desire to live as the opposite sex, usually resulting in surgery or medical therapy
    • does not need to be distressing
  108. when do sleep terrors occur?
    • N3 slow wave delta sleep
    • (before REM, so you have no memory of it)
  109. narolepsy
    • caused by low hypocretin aka orexin from lateral hypothalamus
    • excessive daytime sleepiness because disordered sleep-wake cycle
    • associated with
    • hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations
    • starting sleep with REM
    • cataplexy (loss of all muscle tone in response to strong emotion)
  110. substance abuse
    • 1 year in which 2 or more of the following occur
    • tolerance
    • withdrawal
    • craving
    • taking in more than planned
    • persistent desire to cut back/failing to cut back when trying
    • significant energy spent getting, doing, or recovering
    • using in physically dangerous situations
    • reducing important occupational, social, or recreational things
    • missing/not doing important occupational, educational, or home obligations
    • social/interpersonal conflicts related to substance use
    • using despite knowing it's harmful
  111. behavior change model
    • precontemplation (not thinking about changing)
    • contemplation (realizing you need to stop but not planning on it)
    • preparation/determination (making a stop plan)
    • action/willpower (carrying out the plan)
    • maintenance (keeping it up)
    • relapse (going back)
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317745
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first aid psych
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learn the made up terms!:)
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