PC30 Ch4 motherboard_slides

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  1. What are the motherboard sizes?
    • ATX > MicroATX >  Mini-ITX > FlexATX > BTX
    • mini-ITX aka ITX
  2. Consider the following when purchasing a motherboard:
    • –Form factor
    • –Processor socket and chipset
    • –Buses and number of bus slots
    • –Other connectors, slots, and ports
  3. Motherboard Form Factors Determines
    • motherboard size, features
    • –Compatible with power supplies, cases, processors,expansion cards
  4. Processor socket determines
    • which processors a board can support
    • – Socket holds Intel or AMD processor
    • Intel makes several Itanium and Xeon processors
    • designed for servers
  5. Sockets and processor use different methods to make contacts between them:
    • Pin grid array (PGA) socket
    • • Pins aligned in uniform rows around socket
    • Land grid array (LGA)
    • • Uses lands (pads) rather than pins
    • • Examples of LGA sockets: LGA775 and LGA1366
    • Flip-chip land grid array (FCLGA) socket
    • • Chip is flipped over so that the top of the chip is on the bottom and makes contact with the socket
    • Staggered pin grid array (SPGA)
    • • Pins staggered over socket
    • • Squeezes more pins into a small space
    • • Easily bent
    • Ball grid array (BGA)
    • • Not really a socket
    • • Processor is soldered to the motherboard
  6. ZIF
    • Zero insertion force (ZIF) sockets
    • –All current processor sockets
    • –Side lever lifts processor up and out of the socket
  7. Sockets for AMD Processors
    AMD uses the PGA socket architecture (desktops)
  8. Chipset:
    • set of chips on motherboard that work with processor to collectively control:
    • Memory, motherboard buses, some peripherals
    • Manufacturers
    • – Intel, AMD, NVIDIA, SiS, and VIA
  9. Intel Chipsets
    • North Bridge and South Bridge - Uses hub interface
    • All I/O buses (input/output buses) connect to hub
    • – Hub connects to system bus
    • North Bridge – fast end of hub
    • South Bridge – slow end of hub
  10. IntelsIvy Bridge chipset
    • – 3rd generation processors released in 2012
    • • Use less power
    • • More transistors in a smaller place
    • • Perform better than earlier products
    • • Uses a single Platform Controller Hub
  11. What is connected to the North Bridge?
    • -Processor by FSB(front side bus)
    • -Primary PCIe slot for video card by PCIe link
    • -RAM by Memory bus
    • -South Bridge
  12. What is connected to the South Bridge?
    • -North Bridge
    • -PCIe slots by PCIe link
    • -USB
    • -sound
    • -drives
  13. Core i7 and X58 chipset
    • -Nehalem chipset
    • -contain memory controller within processor housing
    • -memory connects directly to processor
    • -has QuickPath Interconnect(QPI) technology(16 lanes for data packets)
  14. QPI
    QuickPath Interconnect(QPI) technology(16 lanes for data packets)
  15. Bus
    • – System of pathways used for communication
    • • Carried by bus:
    • – Power, control signals, memory addresses, data
    • • Data and instructions exist in binary
    • – Only two states: on and off
    • • Data path size: width of a data bus
    • – Examples: 8-bit bus has eight wire (lines) to transmit
  16. System clock
    • (system timer) – times activities on the motherboard
    • • Speed of memory, Front Side Bus, processor, or
    • other component is measured in hertz (Hz),
    • which is one cycle per second
    • – Megahertz (MHz): one million cycles per second
    • – Gigahertz (GHz): one billion cycles per second
  17. Conventional PCI
    • –Improved several times
    • –Four types of slots
    • 32-bit 5V and 32-bit 3.3V
    • 64-bit 5V and 64-bit 3.3V
    • - six possible PCI card configurations
    • 32-bit 5V, 32-bit 3.3V, 32-bit universal
    • 64-bit 5V, 64-bit 3.3V, 64-bit universal
  18. PCIe
    • PCI Express (PCIe)
    • –Not backward compatible with conventional PCI or
    • PCI-X
    • –Expected to replace both PCI and PCI-X in the future
    • –Uses a serial bus, which is faster than parallel
    • –Comes in four different slot sizes
    • •PCI Express x1, x4, x8, and x16
    • –Latest version is PCIe 3.0 which doubles the throughput of version 2.0
  19. PCI Riser cards
    • – Installs in a PCI slot and provides another slot at a
    • right angle
    • – Used to fit PCI, PCIe, and PCI-X cards into a low-
    • profile or slimline case
  20. AGP Buses
    • –Accelerated Graphics Port – standard used by motherboard video slots and video cards for years
    • –a dying technology
    • –AGP standards include:
    • Three major releases-AGP 1.0, AGP 2.0, AGP
    • 3.0
    • • One major change in slot length – AGP Pro
    • • Four different speeds – 1x, 2x, 4x, and 8x
    • • Three different voltages
    • • Six different slots
  21. On-board ports
    • -integrated components
    • –Ports coming directly off the motherboard
    • •USB, sound, network, video, eSATA ports
    • •Older motherboards might have mouse and keyboard ports, parallel and serial ports
  22. I/O shield
    Plate installed in computer case providing holes for on-board ports
  23. Internal connectors
    • –Parallel ATA, floppy drive, serial ATA, SCSI, USB or
    • FireWire (IEEE 1394) connectors
  24. Most popular motherboard form factors are:
    ATX, MicroATX and Mini-ITX
  25. Motherboard will have one or more processor
    sockets
  26. most popular chipset manufacturers are:
    Intel, AMD, NVIDIA, and SiS
  27. Major advancements in Intel:
    • Accelerated Hub Architecture
    • Nehalem chipsets
    • Sandy Bridge
    • Ivy Bridge chipsets
  28. Buses include:
    • conventional PCI
    • PIC-X
    • PCI Express
    • AGP
  29. on-board components
    Some components can be built into the motherboard
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317693
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PC30 Ch4 motherboard_slides
Description
PC30 Ch4 motherboard_slides
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