Components of Culture Shock
- Loss/Deprivation (values, lose things important to you & who you are, transition into new culture & things are not the same)
- Strain (psych adaptation, stress caused by shifting mindset to a dif culture)
- Rejection (new culture has aspect that our culture rejects, we think our identity may be rejected)
- Confusion (role ambiguity/unpredictability- like students act dif in other places. you know what you're supposed to do do here- like Goen giving clicker to student)
- Powerlessness (inability to cope, no coping mechanisms in new culture- like student in previous example, couldn't cope)
Definition of Culture Shock (Ting-Toomey & Chung)
"a stressful transitional period when individuals move from a familiar environment to an unfamiliar one. In this unfamiliar environment, the individual's identity appears to be stripped of all protection"
Underlying Factors of Shock
- Motivational Orientation: to what extent do you want to engage the culture
- Personal Expectations: how you will treat others, how you think others will treat youCultural Distance: level of distance between the two cultures, if its smaller then we're less likely to experience CS
- Psychological State/Adjustment: can be pos or neg influence. someone on depression stopping their meds then crashSociological State/Adjustment: environment & extent to which it will produce shock & how we can cope with the changes
Stages of U-Model and W-Model
- Honeymoon (2 mos)
- Crisis/Shock (8 mos)
- Recovery/Adjustment (36 mos)
Tips for Handling Culture Shock
- Increase motivation to learn
- Maintain realistic expectations
- Increase linguistic fluency
- Work on tolerance for ambiguity
- Develop strong and weak ties to manage stress
- Practice Mindfulness
Appropriateness vs Effectiveness
- Appropriateness- does it offend someone? is it appropriate in this situation?
- Effectiveness: does it help me achieve the goals that I am seeking from this interaction?
What does Intercultural Communication Competence involve? (ICC)
- "the knowledge, motivation, and skills to interact effectively and appropriately with members of different cultures"
- knowledge is involved in intercultural but not cultural because its assumed you already have your own culture's knowledge
- motivation... because you already function in this culture so you don't need the motivation to learn it
- skills... because its already assumed you have them because you were raised here
Components of ICC
- Knowledge = awareness/understanding of information and/or behavior necessary for ICC in the context. Without the knowledge, you will be at a disadvantage and will engage in behaviors that may be inappropriate and/or ineffective. You can often do research and get this.
- Motivation = feelings, intentions, desires, needs, etc. related to anticipation of or engagement in intercultural interaction. You will have to make a transition from crisis to a state where you are actually interacting with other people, and motivation is necessary to get you there. You cannot do research and get this, it is an internal state. (sick child)
- Skills = actual performance of behavior(s). Can you perform the behavior?
Spitzberg's ICC styles
(Spitzberg) ineffective because it is both ineffective and inappropriate. You do not have the knowledge or motivation or skill to understand what it appropriate or effective in this context. You cannot reach your goal, and it is offensive to other people in the culture. “Failure to communicate.”
(Spitzberg) appropriate but ineffective. It meets whatever the cultural norms are, but doesn’t typically get people what they want. Can meet basic needs but not much more than that. (order at restaurant, you get food but maybe not exactly what you wanted)
(Spitzberg) effective but inappropriate. Achieves goals but does so in a way that offends other people or that they find objectionable. (when americans do this, we tend to get louder)
(Spitzberg) both appropriate AND effective
Initial interactions: Approach-Avoidance Motivations (Turner)
- sense of security as a human being [least] If we are insecure at some point, we might initiate an interaction to make ourselves feel more secure. But that might also be the reason we avoid initiating an interaction. We feel less secure in the dark. sense of trust/predictability [least] If I think I can predict what they are going to do, I am more likely to engage than if not.
- sense of group inclusion [least] We have in-group and out-group status. There are times where we need to feel a part of the group. Our status as an in-group or out-group member influence whether or not we approach/avoid.
- avoid/diffuse anxiety [moderate] we work to mitigate the anxiety in some waysense of common shared world/commonality [most] If we feel that we have more in common with them, which may drive us to interact with them. relationships are based on commonality.
- symbolic or material gratification [most] if you are in another country where you do not speak the language, but you go into the shop and see something you want to buy. The contact you have with someone is driven by the need to achieve some sort of material gratification (the purchase). sustain self-conception [most] Identity. Is a face-threatening act present in the encounter. Image of the other person and what you/they expect to maintain from the interaction.
- Anxiety/Uncertainty Management Theory
Dimensions of Interpersonal Relationships
- control: Not about to the extent to which you can control, but more so about status. How you can exert some sort of influence over your environment or over other individuals.
- affiliation: Immediacy, friendliness, warmth, liking behaviors. extent to which we are displaying openness in an interaction. Willingness to engage/talk.
- activation: Our response. How do we respond to other individuals? Emotional? Calm? Peaceful?
- control (autonomy)
- approval (social status)
- admiration (respect)
Conflict styles (Ting-Toomey & Oetzel)
see chart in notes
Conflict styles (Hammer)
- Concerned with the extent to which individuals take part in direct and indirect behavior, what role does emotion play?
- Discussion Style: (direct, restraint) We value this in US culture. We are a low context culture so we value spoken language and infer more meaning from it than do other cultures.
- Accommodation style: (indirect, restraint) Do not have to interact as much, just accommodate.
- Engagement style: (direct, expression) In general, we view this as confrontational and see an element of force. We are told exactly what the person wants, but there is the emotional element and we believe conflict should be separated from emotion. Can be productive in conflict behavior because there is both the direct revelation of what is wanted and the emotion acts to prove how much we care about the topic.
- Dynamic style: (indirect, expression) Let’s emotions take over. Expresses emotions and do not directly address the reason of the conflict.
Effective Intercultural Conflict Requires...
- facework management
- mindful listening
- cultural empathy
- mindful reframing
- adaptive code-switching
Banton's 6 orders of contact (4 not useful, 2 useful) [How race influences comm]
- Peripheral contact
- Institutionalized contact
- Assimilation (melting pot)
- Acculturation (tossed salad)
Interpersonal Behavioral Objectives of Race Relations Training (Foeman)
- Goal: Figure out who the other group is, hear their perspective, validate their perspective, and use both of our experiences to attempt to resolve it.
- Articulation of the other group's perspective
- Examination of the other group's perspective
- Find their perspective valid
- Utilization of the other group's perspective
how do we “demystify” the other. How do we, simply, learn about the other so that they are not so foreign to us?
Articulation of the other group's perspective (Foeman)
minority must be willing to articulate their perspective, and majority must be willing to listen to the other’s perspective. We have to listen to people who are different than us and understand
Examination of the other group's perspective (Foeman)
Why does the other group have this perspective? What has the dominant group done to create this perspective? Why did it develop?
Find their perspective valid (Foeman)
not that we agree with that perspective, but that we recognize that the other’s perspective is valid. Dominant group looks at the minority group’s perspective and, although they might not agree, they acknowledge that it is valid.
Utilization of the other group's perspective
Use that perspective to work together to achieve our common goals. BLM movement. The counter to that is “all lives matter” which invalidates the BLM movement. But BLM is not saying that ONLY black lives matter, but that all minority lives matter more than how they are being treated.